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Accurate and meaningful estimates of prevalence and trends are fundamental to describing and understanding the scope of obesity. Policy makers, program planners, and other stakeholders search for and use reports relevant to their population(s) of interest to inform decision making. Interpreting and appropriately applying information derived from such reports, however, is challenging because of variations in methodologies and presentation that exist in the literature. In the report, Assessing Prevalence and Trends in Obesity: Navigating the Evidence, the committee offers a description of the landscape of the literature, a framework for assessing and interpreting published reports, and recommendations for improving future data collection efforts and filling data gaps.