Large catastrophic events, or rare acute events, may cause situations in which a local jurisdiction’s medicines and medical supplies are not sufficient to provide care to the population it serves. In these cases of natural or engineered disasters, such as a terrorist attack, influenza pandemic, or earthquake, state or local authorities can request that the federal government provide assets from the Strategic National Stockpile to augment the state and local jurisdictions’ resources. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC's) Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) is the nation’s repository of medication and medical supplies designed to supplement and resupply state and local public health agencies in the event of an emergency. The materiel is intended to support national health security and is managed by the Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response’s Division of Strategic National Stockpile (DSNS). The stated mission of the SNS is to prepare and support partners and provide the right resources at the right time to secure the nation’s health. The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine established a standing committee of experts to help inform decision making by CDC DSNS, including experts in state and local public health, medical countermeasure (MCM) production, warehouse and product distribution, logistics management, pharmaceutical supply chain modeling, emergency medical services, emergency medicine, risk communications, and FDA regulatory issues. A two-day workshop held by this committee explored the opportunities to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainable methods used by CDC DSNS to distribute MCMs and other supplies during disasters and other public health emergencies, especially those which result in disruption of physical infrastructure such as the electrical grid, central roadways, bridges, and tunnels with in the impacted community. The workshop also explored other federal agency stockpiles and private sector methods for managing the pharmaceutical supply chain. This summary includes discussions from the workshop.