About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.

You searched for: site:nationalacademies.org/hmd


  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D : Health ... Released: November 30, 2010
    Calcium and vitamin D are two essential nutrients long known for their role in bone health. However, the public has heard conflicting messages about the benefits of calcium and vitamin D and also about how much they need to be healthy. The IOM concludes that there is a strong body of evidence that substantiates the importance of vitamin D and calcium in promoting bone growth and maintenance but there is little evidence of other health benefits.
  • The Development of DRIs 1994-2004: Lessons Learned and ... Released: November 30, 2007
    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs), developed between 1994 and 2004, represented a new approach to nutrient reference standards. In order to engage expert research scientists, nutrition practitioners, representatives from U.S. and Canadian government, academia, and industry in discussion on the issues about the development and application of the DRIs, the IOM's Food and Nutrition Board convened a three-day workshop from September 18-20, 2007. The Development of DRIs 1994–2004: Lessons Learned and New Challenges, A Preliminary Workshop Summary reflects the presentations and discussions that took place during the three-day workshop.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop ... Released: November 02, 2006
    The IOM's Food and Nutrion Board released Dietary Reference Intakes Research Synthesis: Workshop Summary on Thursday, November 1, 2006.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes Essential Guide Nutrient ... Released: September 15, 2006
    Responding to the expansion of scientific knowledge about the roles of nutrients in human health, the Institute of Medicine, in partnership with Health Canada, has updated what used to be known as Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and renamed their new approach to these guidelines Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs).
  • Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium ... Released: February 11, 2004
    The Food and Nutrition Board released the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intake of nutrients by Americans and Canadians. This new report establishes nutrient recommendations on water, salt and potassium to maintain health and reduce chronic disease risk.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition ... Released: December 11, 2003
    According to a new FNB report, titled Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification, government authorities in the United States and Canada should use the current Dietary Reference Intake values (DRIs) to update nutrition information on food and dietary supplement labels so that consumers can compare products more easily and make informed food choices based on the latest science.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat ... Released: September 05, 2002
    This new report establishes ranges for fat, carbohydrates and protein and stresses the importance of balancing diet with exercise.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes: Proposed Definition of Dietary ... Released: May 02, 2001
    This report offers a proposed definition of dietary fiber.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic ... Released: January 09, 2001
    Based on the Institute of Medicine's review of the scientific literature regarding dietary micronutrients, recommendations have been formulated regarding vitamins A and K, iron, iodine, chromium, copper, manganese, molybdenum, zinc, and other potentially beneficial trace elements such as boron to determine the roles, if any, they play in health.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium ... Released: August 03, 2000
    This book discusses in detail the role of vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, and the carotenoids in human physiology and health.