About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Neurodegeneration: Exploring Commonalities Across ... Released: October 03, 2013
    Neurodegenerative diseases – such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) – are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the United States due to the aging population. Implications of these diseases are grave, both for individual and family quality of life and for healthcare costs. Recent findings have revealed potential commonalities and parallelisms in genetic and cellular mechanisms across neurodegenerative diseases. In 2012, the IOM hosted a workshop to explore commonalities across neurodegenerative diseases and to identify potential opportunities for collaboration across the respective research and development communities.
  • A Ready and Resilient Workforce for the Department of ... Released: September 12, 2013
    Every day, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) carries out important work that contributes to the safety of the United States and furthers the formation and maintenance of a resilient nation. Created in 2002 from a merger that rapidly incorporated parts of eight cabinet departments and 22 government agencies, DHS has struggled to integrate its numerous components and their unique cultures. While it’s very accomplished at performing its missions, the nature of the DHS work environment is inherently stressful, and employees suffer from numerous organizational and morale challenges. The DHS Office of Health Affairs asked the IOM to review current workforce resilience efforts, identify gaps, and provide recommendations for a 5-year strategy to improve DHSTogether, its current workforce resilience program.
  • Strengthening Human Resources Through Development of ... Released: August 14, 2013
    Sub-Saharan Africa has one of the largest treatment gaps for mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders in the world. The ability to provide adequate human resources for the delivery of essential interventions for MNS disorders is a critical barrier to bridging the treatment gap. In 2012, the IOM hosted a second workshop in Kampala, Uganda, to discuss candidate core competencies that providers might need to help ensure the effective delivery of services for MNS disorders. The workshop focused on candidate competencies for four MNS disorders that account for the greatest burden in low- and middle-income countries: depression, psychosis, epilepsy, and alcohol use disorders.
  • Returning Home from Iraq and Afghanistan: Readjustment ... Released: March 26, 2013
    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have been the longest sustained U.S. military operations since the Vietnam era, sending more than 2.2 million troops into battle, and resulting in more than 6,600 deaths and 48,000 injuries. While many service members return home relatively unscathed and report rewarding experiences, others return with varied complex health conditions and find that readjusting to life at home, reconnecting with family, finding work, or returning to school is an ongoing struggle. The IOM was asked to study veterans’ physical and mental health, as well as other readjustment needs. Following its phase one report, this report presents the IOM’s comprehensive assessment of the physical, psychological, social, and economic effects of deployment on service members, veterans, their families, and their communities.
  • Returning Home from Iraq and Afghanistan: Readjustment ... Released: March 26, 2013
    The wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have been the longest sustained U.S. military operations since the Vietnam era, sending more than 2.2 million troops into battle, and resulting in more than 6,600 deaths and 48,000 injuries. While many service members return home relatively unscathed and report rewarding experiences, others return with varied complex health conditions and find that readjusting to life at home, reconnecting with family, finding work, or returning to school is an ongoing struggle. The IOM was asked to study veterans’ physical and mental health, as well as other readjustment needs. Following its phase one report, this report presents the IOM’s comprehensive assessment of the physical, psychological, social, and economic effects of deployment on service members, veterans, their families, and their communities.
  • Improving the Utility and Translation of Animal Models for ... Released: February 08, 2013
    Animal models have provided significant information about the biology of nervous system disorders and have helped in the development of therapeutics; limitations, however, have also been identified. Effective treatment options that are also low in side effects are still lacking for many diseases. Many therapeutics show promise in preclinical animal models but then fail to produce expected results when tested in humans. The IOM held a workshop to discuss potential opportunities for maximizing the translation of effective therapies from animal models to clinical practice.
  • Contagion of Violence - Workshop Summary : Health and ... Released: October 03, 2012
    In exploring the occurrence of violence, researchers have recognized the tendency for violent acts to cluster, to spread from place to place, and to mutate from one type to another – similar to the infectious disease model, in which an agent or vector initiates a specific biological pathway leading to symptoms of disease and infectivity. On April 30-May 1, 2012, the IOM held a workshop that focused on the epidemiology of the contagion, possible processes and mechanisms by which violence is transmitted, how contextual factors mitigate or exacerbate the issue, and ways in which the contagion of violence might be interrupted.
  • Substance Use Disorders in the US Armed Forces : Health ... Released: September 17, 2012
    Like many sectors of society, the U.S. military has a long history of alcohol and other drug misuse and abuse. In recent years, the face of the issue has been transformed by increasing rates of prescription drug abuse among service members. To better understand the current substance use problems within the U.S. military, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the IOM to analyze policies and programs that pertain to prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment of substance use disorders for active duty service members in all branches, members of the National Guard and Reserve, and military families. The IOM concludes that to deal with this public health crisis, the DoD will need to consistently implement evidence-based prevention, screening, diagnosis, and treatment services and take leadership for ensuring that these services expand and improve.
  • Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Military and ... Released: July 13, 2012
    An estimated 13 to 20 percent of United States service members who have fought in Iraq or Afghanistan since 2001 suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), brought on by a specific traumatic event, including combat. As the U.S. reduces its military involvement in the Middle East, the Departments of Defense (DoD) and Veterans Affairs (VA) anticipate that increasing numbers of returning veterans will need PTSD services. As a result, Congress asked the DoD, in consultation with the VA, to sponsor an IOM study to assess both departments’ PTSD treatment programs and services. This first of two mandated reports examines the some of the available prevention, screening, diagnostic, treatment, and rehabilitation programs and encourages further research that can help to improve PTSD care.
  • The Mental Health and Substance Use Workforce for Older ... Released: July 10, 2012
    At least 5.6 million to 8 million – nearly one in five – older adults in America have one or more mental health and substance use conditions, which present unique challenges for their care. With the number of adults age 65 and older projected to soar from 40.3 million in 2010 to 72.1 million by 2030, the aging of America holds profound consequences for the nation. Following its 2008 report highlighting the urgency of expanding and strengthening the geriatric health care workforce, the IOM was asked by the Department of Health and Human Services to undertake a complementary study on the geriatric mental health and substance use workforce. An expert committee assessed the needs of this population and the workforce that serves it.