About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to ... Released: July 28, 2004
    Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products. In this report, the committee recommended that greater scrutiny should be given to foods containing new compounds or unusual amounts of naturally occurring substances, regardless of the method used to create them.
  • Children's Health, the Nation's Wealth: Assessing and ... Released: June 24, 2004
    Children's health has clearly improved over the past several decades. Yet major questions still remain about how to assess the status of children's health, what factors should be monitored, and the appropriate measurement tools that should be used. Children's Health, The Nation's Wealth provides a detailed examination of the information about children's health that is needed to help policy makers and program providers at the federal, state, and local levels.
  • Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in ... Released: April 26, 2004
    An IOM report, titled Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance during Military Operations, examines current and needed technologies and information that will provide information for command decisions relative to the physiological and psychological "readiness" of each combat service member. Specifically, the report identifies the most promising biomarkers for the prediction of health deterioration, tools for monitoring metabolic status in the field, algorithms to interpret data, and current research investments that may lead to revolutionary advances.
  • Dietary Supplements: A Framework for Evaluating Safety ... Released: April 01, 2004
    Although vitamin and supplement manufacturers are restricted from claiming that using their products leads to therapeutic benefits, surveys show that many people take supplements for purposes such as treating colds or alleviating depression. According to other survey data, the majority of consumers believe these products to be either reasonably or completely safe. To bolster the FDA's ability to evaluate the safety of dietary supplements, the Institute of Medicine report Dietary Supplements: A Framework for Evaluating Safety outlines a science-based process for assessing supplement ingredients, even when data about a substance's safety in humans is scarce.
  • Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients ... Released: March 01, 2004
    Infant formulas are liquids or reconstituted powders fed to infants and young children to serve as substitutes for human milk. Although existing federal guidelines and regulations for evaluating the safety of food ingredients have worked well for conventional substances (e.g., vitamins, minerals), they are not sufficient to address the diversity of potential new ingredients proposed by manufacturers to develop formulas that mimic human milk, says a report from the IOM.
  • In the Nation's Compelling Interest: Ensuring Diversity in the ... Released: February 05, 2004
    The report examines institutional and policy-level strategies - defined as specific policies and programs of health professions schools, their associations and accreditation bodies, health care systems/organizations, and state and federal governments - to increase diversity among health professionals.
  • Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsibility ... Released: September 09, 2003
    Alcohol use by young people is extremely dangerous - both to themselves and society at large. Underage alcohol use is associated with traffic fatalities, violence, unsafe sex, suicide, educational failure, and other problem behaviors that diminish the prospects of future success, as well as health risks – and the earlier teens start drinking, the greater the danger. Reducing Underage Drinking: A Collective Responsbility, a joint report by the National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, addresses these questions and proposes a new way to combat underage alcohol use.
  • Financing Vaccines in the 21st Century: Assuring Access and ... Released: August 04, 2003
    Financing Vaccines in the 21st Century: Assuring Access and Availability addresses these challenges by proposing new strategies for assuring access to vaccines and sustaining the supply of current and future vaccines. The report proposes a federal mandate, subsidy and voucher program for vaccines.
  • Medicare Coverage of Routine Screening for Thyroid ... Released: April 18, 2003
    The serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) assay is a common blood test that is already covered by the Medicare program for the diagnosis and treatment of illness. This report is an inquiry into the additional costs and benefits of also offering this test as a preventive service.
  • Guidance for the National Healthcare Disparities Report ... Released: September 27, 2002
    Research has extensively documented the pervasiveness of racial and ethnic disparities in health care. In 1999, as part of a national effort to eliminate health care disparities, Congress required the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to produce an annual report to be called the National Healthcare Disparitites Report (NHDR). In this report, titled Guidance for the National Healthcare Disparities Report, an IOM committee was asked to provide guidance to AHRQ to help fulfill the potential of the NHDR.