Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Enabling Novel Treatments for Nervous System Disorders by ...
Released: March 08, 2018
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a special challenge to the development of therapeutics for many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Far from acting simply as a physical barrier, the BBB is a complex dynamic system involving several cell types, passive and active transport mechanisms, and adaptive function to control the exchange of substances between the blood and the CNS. Few therapeutic agents readily traverse the BBB to reach the brain or spinal cord, including most small molecule drugs and the vast majority of large molecules such as proteins.
A Proposed Framework for Integration of Quality Performance ...
Released: March 07, 2018
The Roundtable on Health Literacy hosted a public workshop featuring invited presentations and discussion of the quality performance measures for integration of health literacy, cultural competence, and language access services. A commissioned paper was presented and the workshop included presentations and discussion of reactions to the paper; the relationship of quality measures to patient-centered care; and approaches to integrating measures in health care organizations.
Exploring Early Childhood Care and Education Levers to ...
Released: February 22, 2018
Experts from the health and the early childhood care and education fields gathered on September 14, 2017, in New York City at a workshop hosted by the Roundtable on Population Health Improvement. The workshop presentations and discussion focused on the evidence base at the intersection of the two fields; on exploring current and potential effective strategies to work together; and on the policy levers available to improve early childhood development, health, and learning.
Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes : Health and ...
Released: January 23, 2018
Millions of Americans use e-cigarettes, even as rates of smoking combustible tobacco cigarettes continue to decline among youth and adults. In 2016 youth e-cigarette use was substantially higher than cigarette smoking or use of any other tobacco product. The Center for Tobacco Products of the Food and Drug Administration requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convene a committee of experts to conduct a review the available evidence of the health effects related to the use of e-cigarettes and identify future federally funded research needs.
Getting to Zero Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities: A ...
Released: January 17, 2018
Alcohol-impaired driving remains the deadliest and costliest danger on U.S. roads today. Every day in the United States, 29 people die in an alcohol-impaired driving crash—one death every 49 minutes. After decades of progress, alcohol-impaired driving fatality rates plateaued and have increased for the past two years—making it a persistent public health and safety problem.
The Challenge of Treating Obesity and Overweight ...
Released: December 21, 2017
The Roundtable on Obesity Solutions held a workshop in Washington, DC, titled “The Challenge of Treating Obesity and Overweight: A Workshop.” The workshop featured invited presentations and discussions that explored what is known about current obesity treatment approaches and the challenges involved in implementing them, including their effectiveness (and how “success” is defined); payment for services; training of the workforce that provides the services; and health equity issues involved in treatment.
Advancing Obesity Solutions Through Investments in the Built ...
Released: December 14, 2017
The built environment—the physical world made up of the homes, buildings, streets, and infrastructure within which we all live, work, and play—underwent changes during the 20th and 21st centuries. These changes contributed to a sharp decline in physical activity and affected access to healthy foods, which have added to the weight gain observed among Americans in recent decades.
Strategies to Limit Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption ...
Released: December 13, 2017
On June 21–22, 2017, the Food and Nutrition Board convened A Workshop on Strategies to Limit Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Young Children: Evaluation of Federal, State, and Local Policies and Programs, in Washington, DC.
Combating Antimicrobial Resistance: A One Health Approach ...
Released: December 08, 2017
To build on previous work, to explore developments since the last workshop was convened, and to help parlay knowledge into immediate action, an ad hoc planning committee, under the auspices of the Forum of Microbial Threats at the National Academies, planned a 2-day public workshop Combating Antimicrobial Resistance: A One Health Approach to a Global Threat. The workshop explored issues of antimicrobial resistance through the lens of One Health, which is a collaborative approach of multiple disciplines—working locally, nationally, and globally—for strengthening systems to counter infectious diseases and related issues that threaten human, animal, and environmental health, with an end point of improving global health and achieving gains in development.
Making Medicines Affordable: A National Imperative : Health ...
Released: November 30, 2017
Over the past several decades, the biopharmaceutical sector in the United States has been successful in developing and delivering effective drugs for improving health and fighting disease, and many medical conditions that were long deemed untreatable can now be cured or managed effectively. At the same time, spending on prescription drugs has been rising dramatically, to the point that many individuals have difficulty paying for the drugs that they or their family members need.