Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
The Role of Clinical Studies for Pets with Naturally Occurring ...
Released: October 30, 2015
Recently, there has been renewed interest in comparative oncology— the study of naturally developing cancers in animals as models for human disease—as one way to improve cancer drug development and reduce attrition of investigational agents. Tumors that spontaneously develop in pet dogs and other companion animals as a result of normal aging share many characteristics with human cancers, such as histological appearance, tumor genetics, biological behavior, molecular targets, and therapeutic response.
Opportunities to Promote Children's Behavioral Health: Health ...
Released: October 07, 2015
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has several provisions that could greatly improve the behavioral health of children and adolescents in the United States. To explore how the ACA and other aspects of health care reform can support innovations to improve children’s behavioral health and sustain those innovations over time, the Forum on Promoting Children’s Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Health held a workshop in Washington, DC, on April 1–2, 2015, titled “Opportunities to Promote Children’s Behavioral Health: Health Care Reform and Beyond.”
Assessing and Improving the Interpretation of Breast Images ...
Released: September 24, 2015
Since 2005, a substantial new body of research pertaining to mammography interpretation has been published. To explore this evidence and its policy implications, the IOM’s National Cancer Policy Forum, with support from the American Cancer Society (ACS), brought together experts and members of the public for the workshop, “Assessing and Improving the Interpretation of Breast Images,” which was held on May 12 and 13, 2015, in Washington, DC. At this workshop, clinicians and researchers, along with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Cancer Institute (NCI), and patient advocacy organizations, discussed potential options for action to improve the quality of mammography interpretation.
Envisioning the Future of Health Professional Education ...
Released: September 14, 2015
In 2009, 20 experts from around the globe gathered to create a roadmap for transforming health professional education for advancing health. Their ideas were captured in the Lancet Commission report on health professions education for the 21st century.
Comprehensive Cancer Care for Children and Families ...
Released: July 20, 2015
To examine specific opportunities and suggestions for driving optimal care delivery supporting survival with high quality of life, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the American Cancer Society co-hosted a workshop on “Comprehensive Cancer Care for Children and Their Families,” which convened experts and members of the public on March 9 and 10, 2015, in Washington, DC.
Transforming Health Care Scheduling and Access: Getting to ...
Released: June 29, 2015
The Institute of Medicine (IOM) report Crossing the Quality Chasm identified six fundamental aims for health care—that it be safe, effective, patient-centered, efficient, equitable, and timely. Of these fundamental aims, timeliness is in some ways the least well studied and understood. How can timely care be ensured in various health care settings, and what are some of the reasons that care is sometimes not timely? The report presented here was developed by the IOM Committee on Optimizing Scheduling in Health Care to answer such questions.
Developing a Performance Standard for Combination Unit ...
Released: June 17, 2015
Combination unit respirators, a respirator that employs the technology of two or more types of respiratory protection, are presently used in the United States by some law enforcement and military units to respond to situations in which there are unknown and potentially dangerous respiratory hazards; they also have some industrial uses and potential for use in emergency response.
Measuring the Impact of Interprofessional Education (IPE) on ...
Released: April 22, 2015
In 2013, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education held two workshops on IPE. At these workshops, a number of questions were raised, the most important of which was “What data and metrics are needed to evaluate the impact of IPE on individual, population, and system outcomes?” To answer this question, the Forum’s 47 individual sponsors requested that an IOM consensus committee be convened to examine the existing evidence on this complex issue and consider the potential design of future studies that could expand this evidence base.
Policy Issues in the Development and Adoption of Biomarkers ...
Released: April 02, 2015
A long-held goal in oncology has been to develop therapies that target the specific abnormalities in each patient’s cancer rather than simply treating cancers based on the tissue of origin. In the past decade, advances in technology have enabled researchers to relatively quickly and inexpensively determine, in minute detail, the genetic makeup of tumors.However, many challenges remain in effectively and efficiently developing new targeted cancer therapies and the biomarker tests that indicate which patients will be responsive to them, and in implementing them appropriately in clinical practice. These challenges include many policy issues, such as the level of oversight needed for test development and use, levels of evidence necessary for reimbursement decisions, and ways to meet informational needs of patients and care providers.
Harvesting the Scientific Investment in Prevention Science to ...
Released: April 01, 2015
With more than 200 prevention-centered, evidence-based health interventions in their toolbox, pediatric health practitioners stand to reap a bounty of benefits for their clients and communities. But how should all these data be harvested and evaluated, particularly in light of the changes introduced by the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, as well as reduced funding, implementation barriers, and the demands of balancing public health against individual patient treatment choices?