About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.

  • Geographic Adjustment in Medicare Payment: Phase I ... Released: September 28, 2011
    Medicare is the largest health insurer in the United States, providing coverage for 39 million people aged 65 and older and 8 million people with disabilities. Although Medicare is a national program, it adjusts fee-for-service payments according to the geographic location of a practice. At the request of Congress and the Department of Health and Human Services, the IOM examined ways to improve the accuracy of data sources and methods used for making the geographic adjustments in payments to providers. The IOM recommends an integrated approach that includes moving to a single source of wage and benefits data; changing to one set of payment areas and labor markets; and expanding the range of occupations included in the index calculations.
  • Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection ... Released: August 02, 2011
    Occupational health nurses (OHNs) are front-line advocates for preventing illness and injury and protecting health in a variety of workplace settings, including the areas of agriculture, construction, health care, manufacturing, and public safety. OHNs need education and training in respiratory protection in order to ensure both their safety and the safety of America’s workers. At the request of the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the IOM examined existing respiratory protection curricula and made recommendations to improve education and training in respiratory protection for OHNs. The IOM finds that current respiratory protection education receives varying amounts of dedicated time and resources and is taught using a variety of approaches. Several recommendations are made to improve the respiratory protection education and training of OHNs.
  • Learning What Works: Infrastructure Required for Comparative ... Released: July 25, 2011
    It is essential for patients and clinicians to know which treatments work best for whom if they are to make informed, collaborative care decisions. Despite this need, only a small fraction of health-related expenditures in the U.S. have been devoted to comparative effectiveness research. As part of its Learning Health System series of workshops, the IOM’s Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care hosted a workshop to discuss capacity priorities to build the evidence base necessary for care that is more effective and delivers higher value for patients.
  • Implementing a National Cancer Clinical Trials System for the ... Released: July 22, 2011
    The National Cancer Institute’s Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program works to advance patient care and research. Despite broad participation in the program, financial strain and procedural burdens limit the ability of the Cooperative Group Program to undertake medical practice-changing clinical research. The IOM’s National Cancer Policy Forum and the American Society of Clinical Oncology held a workshop on March 21, 2011 to follow up on the 2010 IOM report A National Clinical Trials System for the 21st Century: Reinvigorating the NCI Cooperative Group Program, which made recommendations to strengthen the NCI Cooperative Group Program.
  • Engineering a Learning Healthcare System: A Look at the ... Released: July 08, 2011
    Lessons from engineering have the potential to improve both the efficiency and quality of healthcare delivery. The fundamental notion of a high-performing healthcare system—one that increasingly is more effective, more efficient, safer, and higher quality—is rooted in continuous improvement principles that medicine shares with engineering. As part of its Learning Health System series of workshops, the IOM’s Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care hosted a workshop, jointly with the National Academy of Engineering, on lessons from systems and operations engineering that could be applied to health care.
  • Patient-Centered Cancer Treatment Planning: Improving the ... Released: June 13, 2011
    The life-threatening nature of cancer and the complexity of cancer treatment options, each with its own set of potential risks and benefits, make it difficult for people with cancer to make decisions about their care. A cancer treatment plan—a written document describing the path of care and who is responsible for each portion of that care—can provide patients with a roadmap to navigate the uncertain path they face. However, most providers lack the tools, time, and resources needed to efficiently and effectively prepare such plans with their patients. The IOM’s National Cancer Policy Forum held a workshop to discuss ways to create a more coordinated, patient-centered cancer treatment planning process.
  • Digital Infrastructure for the Learning Health System: The ... Released: May 23, 2011
    Like many other industries, health care is increasingly turning to digital information and the use of electronic resources. The IOM’s Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care hosted three workshops to explore current efforts and opportunities to accelerate progress in improving health and health care with information technology systems.
  • The National Cancer Policy Summit: Opportunities and ... Released: February 28, 2011
    Technological advances are altering the way cancer research is conducted and cancer care is delivered, and research increasingly is an international effort. At the same time, research budgets are shrinking and the cost of care is growing. The National Cancer Policy Summit brought together leaders in the cancer community to discuss these changes in research and care. Participants suggested many potential actions to provide more patient-centered cancer care, foster more collaboration, and achieve other goals to improve research and care.
  • Redesigning the Clinical Effectiveness Research Paradigm ... Released: December 06, 2010
    Currently, a substantial gap exists between the knowledge needed and that available for medical care decisions. The IOM Roundtable on Value & Science-Driven Health Care sponsored a meeting to explore the methods, data resources, tools, and techniques that are emerging in the new generation of accelerated clinical research approaches.
  • Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared ... Released: November 29, 2010
    HIV/AIDS is a catastrophe globally but nowhere more so than in sub-Saharan Africa, which in 2009 accounted for 68 percent of cases worldwide and 69 percent of new infections. The IOM recommends that the United States and African nations move toward a strategy of shared responsibility such that these nations are empowered to take ownership of their HIV/AIDS problem and work to solve it.