Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and ...
Released: December 15, 2008
Medical residency in the United States aims to prepare recent medical school graduates to practice medicine independently. Residents often work long hours with limited time off to catch up on their sleep. However, many medical educators believe extensive duty hours are essential to provide residents with the educational experiences they need to become competent in diagnosing and treating patients. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety asserts that revisions to medical residents’ workloads and duty hours are necessary to better protect patients against fatigue-related errors and to enhance the learning environment for doctors in training.
Design Considerations for Evaluating the Impact of PEPFAR. ...
Released: September 15, 2008
Design Considerations for Evaluating the Impact of PEPFAR is the summary of a 2-day workshop on methodological, policy, and practical design considerations for a future evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) interventions carried out under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which was convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) on April 30 and May 1, 2007.
Improving the Quality of Cancer Clinical Trials. Workshop ...
Released: May 13, 2008
Scientists and clinicians seek a new paradigm that could improve the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and overall success rate of cancer clinical trials, while maintaining the highest standards of quality. To explore innovative paradigms for cancer clinical trials and other ways to improve their quality, the National Cancer Policy Forum held a workshop, Improving the Quality of Cancer Clinical Trials, in Washington, DC. The main goals of the workshop were to examine new approaches to clinical trial design and execution.
Retooling for an Aging America: Building the Health Care ...
Released: April 11, 2008
The Institute of Medicine charged the ad hoc Committee on the Future Health Care Workforce for Older Americans to determine the health care needs of Americans over 65 years of age and to assess those needs through an analysis of the forces that shape the health care workforce, including education and training, models of care, and public and private programs. The resulting report, Retooling for an Aging America: Building the Health Care Workforce, says that as the population of seniors grows to comprise approximately 20 percent of the U.S. population, they will face a health care workforce that is too small and critically unprepared to meet their health needs.
Research Priorities in Emergency Preparedness and ...
Released: January 22, 2008
Schools of public health act as a resource by providing expertise to strengthen our nation's emergency response systems. In response to the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA) (Public Law 109–417, 2006, § 101 et seq.) there is an immediate and critical need to define research priorities for the Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP) at schools of public health. It is because of this crucial need, that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened an ad hoc committee, conducted a fast-track study, and issued the letter report entitled Research Priorities in Emergency Preparedness and Response for Public Health Systems.
Cancer Care for the Whole Patient: Meeting Psychosocial ...
Released: October 15, 2007
Cancer care today often provides state-of-the-science biomedical treatment, but fails to address the psychological and social (psychosocial) problems associated with the illness. Today, it is not possible to deliver good-quality cancer care without addressing patients’ psychosocial health needs. All patients with cancer and their families should expect and receive cancer care that ensures the provision of appropriate psychosocial health services. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to study the delivery of psychosocial services to cancer patients and their families and identify ways to improve it.
Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic: Personal Protective ...
Released: September 18, 2007
During an influenza pandemic, healthcare workers will be on the front lines delivering care to patients and preventing further spread of the disease. One vital aspect of pandemic influenza planning is the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) that will be used by healthcare workers and others in their day-to-day patient care responsibilities. In 2006, the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL) at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a study on the personal protective equipment needed by healthcare workers in the event of an influenza pandemic.
Cancer-Related Genetic Testing and Counseling. Workshop ...
Released: August 20, 2007
The Institute of Medicine’s National Cancer Policy Forum held a workshop and released the proceedings entitled Cancer-Related Genetic Testing and Counseling. The workshop focused on the fact that genetic testing and counseling are becoming more complex and important for informing patients and families of the risks and benefits of certain courses of action, but at the same time organized expert programs are in short supply. The workshop covered the scientific and clinical aspects of genetic testing and counseling as well as workforce and reimbursement issues, among others.
Training Physicians for Public Health Careers : Health and ...
Released: June 06, 2007
Public health efforts have resulted in tremendous improvements in the health of individuals and communities through preventive health services, vaccines, improved sanitation and hygiene, safer workplaces, and enhanced food and drug safety. However, despite the achievements of public health, there is a growing shortage of public health workers, including a critical shortage of public health physicians, and many public health workers are inadequately prepared to face today’s public health challenges.