About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Review of the DoD-GEIS Influenza Programs: Strengthening ... Released: September 25, 2007
    In 2006, spurred in part by concerns about the H5N1 virus, Congress allocated $39 million in supplemental funding for DoD-GEIS to improve this surveillance network by upgrading the capabilities of its domestic and overseas laboratories. Afterward, DoD-GEIS management asked the Institute of Medicine to form a committee that would evaluate how well DoD-GEIS had spent the supplemental funds.
  • Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic ... Released: June 11, 2007
    In order to focus on the profound ethical and legal issues inherent in various pandemic disease mitigation approaches, that are being proposed domestically and internationally, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop and released the workshop summary entitled Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease.
  • PEPFAR Implementation: Progress and Promise : Health and ... Released: March 30, 2007
    In 2003 Congress passed the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act, which established a five-year, $15 billion initiative to help countries around the world respond to their AIDS epidemics. The initiative is generally referred to by the title of the five-year strategy required by the act—PEPFAR, or the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.
  • Cancer Control Opportunities in Low- and Middle-Income ... Released: February 01, 2007
    Cancer is generally low or absent on the health agenda of most the world’s low- and middle-income countries (LMCs), even as it is growing as a share of these countries’ overall disease burden. In light of this situation, the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society asked the Institute of Medicine to study the issue and provide an assessment and recommendations to tackle the problem.
  • Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High ... Released: September 15, 2006
    The sharing of contaminated injecting equipment has become a driving force behind the global AIDS epidemic and is the primary mode of HIV transmission in many countries, particularly throughout Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and significant parts of Asia. In response to this crisis, in 2005 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation commissioned the Institute of Medicine to evaluate strategies for preventing HIV transmission among injecting drug users.
  • Addressing Foodborne Threats to Health: Policies, Practices ... Released: September 15, 2006
    Foodborne agents have been estimated to cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,200 deaths in the United States each year. In order to examine issues critical to the protection of the nation’s food supply, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on October 25 and 26, 2005, in Washington, D.C. to explore existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of foodborne threats to health.
  • Ending the War Metaphor: The Changing Agenda for ... Released: June 23, 2006
    The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted the public workshop Ending the War Metaphor: The Future Agenda for Unraveling the Host-Microbe Relationship, aimed to inform the Forum, the public, and policymakers of the dynamic host-microbe-environment relationships.
  • Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences ... Released: April 10, 2006
    Biomedical advances have made it possible to identify and manipulate features of living organisms in useful ways -- leading to improvements in public health, agriculture, and other areas. However, coordinated global efforts are needed to reduce the growing risk that new advances in these areas will be used to make novel biological weapons or misused by careless groups and individuals. The report recommends multidisciplinary measures to identify and mitigate such dangers over the next five to 10 years.
  • The Impact of Globalization on Infectious Disease Emergence ... Released: March 03, 2006
    As transborder mobility of humans, animals, food, and feed products increases, so does the threat of the spread of dangerous pathogens and infectious disease. While new global markets have created unprecedented economic opportunities and growth, the benefits have not been equally distributed, and the risks--especially the health risks--of our increasingly interconnected and fast-paced world continue to grow. On April 16 and 17, 2002, the Forum on Microbial Threats conducted a working group discussion on the influence of globalization on the emergence and control of infectious diseases.
  • Ensuring an Infectious Disease Workforce: Education and ... Released: February 24, 2006
    A workshop was held June 12-13, 2003, in which presentations and discussion addressed the practical application of technologies, methodologies, and practices related to infectious disease surveillance, prevention, research, and control.