About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental ... Released: March 18, 2008
    The Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats convened a workshop—on June 19-20, 2007, in Ft. Collins, CO—entitled Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections. The purpose of this public workshop was to examine the global burden of vector-borne diseases of humans, animals, and plants, and to discuss prospects for successful mitigation and response strategies.
  • Methodological Challenges in Biomedical HIV Prevention ... Released: February 21, 2008
    A new Institute of Medicine report, Methodological Challenges in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials, discusses various ways to improve the design, monitoring, and analysis of late-stage randomized clinical trials of biomedical interventions to prevent HIV infection. The main goals are to increase the chances that these trials will detect a beneficial effect on HIV infection risk and to more fully assess how adherence to the intervention influences HIV infection risk, and to assess the intervention’s effect on HIV risk behavior.
  • Violence Prevention in Low- and Middle-Income Countries ... Released: January 25, 2008
    The current state of science in violence prevention reveals progress, promise, and a number of remaining challenges. In order to fully examine the issue of global violence prevention, the Institute of Medicine in collaboration with Global Violence Prevention Advocacy, convened a workshop and released the workshop summary entitled, Violence Prevention in Low-and Middle-Income Countries.
  • Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection ... Released: October 22, 2007
    The Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Microbial Threats convened a workshop addressing Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges—Finding Solutions on December 12 and 13, 2006, to consider scientific and policy issues relevant to the practice of disease surveillance and detection.
  • Review of the DoD-GEIS Influenza Programs: Strengthening ... Released: September 25, 2007
    In 2006, spurred in part by concerns about the H5N1 virus, Congress allocated $39 million in supplemental funding for DoD-GEIS to improve this surveillance network by upgrading the capabilities of its domestic and overseas laboratories. Afterward, DoD-GEIS management asked the Institute of Medicine to form a committee that would evaluate how well DoD-GEIS had spent the supplemental funds.
  • Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic ... Released: June 11, 2007
    In order to focus on the profound ethical and legal issues inherent in various pandemic disease mitigation approaches, that are being proposed domestically and internationally, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop and released the workshop summary entitled Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease.
  • PEPFAR Implementation: Progress and Promise : Health and ... Released: March 30, 2007
    In 2003 Congress passed the United States Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act, which established a five-year, $15 billion initiative to help countries around the world respond to their AIDS epidemics. The initiative is generally referred to by the title of the five-year strategy required by the act—PEPFAR, or the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.
  • Cancer Control Opportunities in Low- and Middle-Income ... Released: February 01, 2007
    Cancer is generally low or absent on the health agenda of most the world’s low- and middle-income countries (LMCs), even as it is growing as a share of these countries’ overall disease burden. In light of this situation, the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society asked the Institute of Medicine to study the issue and provide an assessment and recommendations to tackle the problem.
  • Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High ... Released: September 15, 2006
    The sharing of contaminated injecting equipment has become a driving force behind the global AIDS epidemic and is the primary mode of HIV transmission in many countries, particularly throughout Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and significant parts of Asia. In response to this crisis, in 2005 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation commissioned the Institute of Medicine to evaluate strategies for preventing HIV transmission among injecting drug users.
  • Addressing Foodborne Threats to Health: Policies, Practices ... Released: September 15, 2006
    Foodborne agents have been estimated to cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,200 deaths in the United States each year. In order to examine issues critical to the protection of the nation’s food supply, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on October 25 and 26, 2005, in Washington, D.C. to explore existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of foodborne threats to health.