Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
The Science and Applications of Synthetic and Systems ...
Released: November 23, 2011
The completion of the initial draft of the human genome sequence in 2001 represented a fundamental shift in the way biology was studied, and allowed for vast post-genomic possibilities. Until the past decade, the work was often painstakingly slow; however, new strategies combining engineering and biological techniques have enhanced researchers' abilities. These new synthetic techniques allow for genes and long chains of DNA to be designed and manufactured from scratch using a computer and relevant chemical compounds, rather than manipulating pieces of existing genes from living cells. The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop March 14-15, 2011 to explore the scientific and policy dimensions of recent developments in genetic engineering and their applications to emerging infectious diseases.
Social and Economic Costs of Violence - Workshop Summary ...
Released: October 25, 2011
Measuring the social and economic costs of violence can be difficult, and most estimates only consider direct economic effects, such as productivity loss or the use of health care services. Communities and societies feel the effects of violence through loss of social cohesion, financial divestment, and the increased burden on the health care and justice systems. Initial estimates show that early violence prevention intervention has economic benefits. The IOM Forum on Global Violence Prevention held a workshop to examine the successes and challenges of calculating direct and indirect costs of violence, as well as the potential cost-effectiveness of intervention.
Preventing Violence Against Women and Children - Workshop ...
Released: September 15, 2011
Across the world, violence against women and children poses a high burden on global health. Women and children are particularly susceptible to violence because they often have fewer rights or lack legal protection. Over the last decade, researchers have gathered data on the growing magnitude of this violence, but many research gaps still remain. January 27-28, 2011, the Forum on Global Violence Prevention held its first workshop to explore the prevention of violence against women and children. The workshop opened the discussion on violence-prevention strategies, as well as ways to prevent the spread of violence from one generation to the next.
Fungal Diseases: An Emerging Threat To Human, Animal, and ...
Released: September 09, 2011
Fungal diseases have contributed to death and disability in humans, triggered global wildlife extinctions and population declines, devastated agricultural crops, and altered forest ecosystem dynamics. Despite the extensive influence of fungi on health and economic well-being, the threats posed by emerging fungal pathogens to life on Earth are often underappreciated and poorly understood. On December 14 and 15, 2010, the IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop to explore the scientific and policy dimensions associated with the causes and consequences of emerging fungal diseases.
The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic ...
Released: June 01, 2011
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) afflict more than 1.4 billion people, many of whom live on less than $1.25 a day. While there are effective ways to manage NTDs, policy-makers and funders have only recently begun to recognize the economic and public health importance of controlling NTDs. The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats held a workshop September 21-22, 2010, to discuss the science of and policy surrounding NTDs.
Preparing for the Future of HIV/AIDS in Africa: A Shared ...
Released: November 29, 2010
HIV/AIDS is a catastrophe globally but nowhere more so than in sub-Saharan Africa, which in 2009 accounted for 68 percent of cases worldwide and 69 percent of new infections. The IOM recommends that the United States and African nations move toward a strategy of shared responsibility such that these nations are empowered to take ownership of their HIV/AIDS problem and work to solve it.
Antibiotic Resistance: Implications for Global Health and ...
Released: September 07, 2010
Years of using, misusing, and overusing antibiotics and other antimicrobial drugs has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant “superbugs.” The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats held a public workshop April 6-7 to discuss the nature and sources of drug-resistant pathogens, the implications for global health, and the strategies to lessen the current and future impact of these superbugs.
Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A ...
Released: March 22, 2010
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for nearly 30 percent of deaths in low and middle income countries each year, yet most governments, global health institutions, and development agencies have largely overlooked it. The IOM recommends strategies to reduce the global burden of CVD.
Infectious Disease Movement in a Borderless World. ...
Released: March 12, 2010
As a result of our global interconnectedness, infectious diseases emerge more frequently; spread greater distances; pass more easily between humans and animals; and change rapidly into new and more virulent strains. To explore issues related to infectious disease movement in a borderless world, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop December 16-17, 2008, summarized in this document.