About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Financing Investments in Young Children Globally: Workshop ... Released: March 06, 2015
    On August 26–27, 2014, the Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally hosted its second workshop, in New Delhi, India. The forum’s first workshop, titled “The Cost of Inaction,” was held in Washington, DC, in April 2014 and focused on the science of promoting optimal development through investing in young children and the potential economic consequences of inaction.
  • Empowering Women and Strengthening Health Systems and ... Released: February 09, 2015
    On September 9–11, 2014, the Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education and the Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety of the Institute of Medicine convened a workshop on empowering women and strengthening health systems and services through investing in nursing and midwifery enterprise. This report highlights examples and explores broad frameworks for existing and potential intersections of different sectors that could lead to better health and well-being of women around the world, and how lessons learned from these examples might be applied in the United States.
  • Financing Investments in Young Children Globally: Workshop ... Released: November 03, 2014
    On August 26-27, 2014, the Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally of the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council, in partnership with the Center for Early Childhood Education and Development (CECED), Ambedkar University, Delhi, held a 2-day workshop titled “Financing Investments in Young Children Globally.” The purpose of this workshop was to identify some current issues in financing investments across health, education, nutrition, and social protection that aim to improve children’s developmental potential.
  • Building Health Workforce Capacity Through Community ... Released: October 03, 2014
    On May 1–2, 2014, members of the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education came together to substantively delve into issues affecting the scale-up and spread of health professional education in communities. A purpose of the workshop was to challenge the participants to think about community in new ways that could provide fertile ground for educating health professional students. This document summarizes the workshop.
  • Investing in Global Health Systems: Sustaining Gains ... Released: September 16, 2014
    An IOM study looked at how health systems improvements can lead to better health, reduce poverty, and make donor investment in health sustainable. The resulting report stresses the importance of the health system in making transformative investments that support health in developing countries, and outlines a broad donor strategy that can make effective use of the United States’ comparative advan¬tage in science and technology to improve health for the world’s most vulnerable people.
  • The Influence of Global Environmental Change on Infectious ... Released: September 03, 2014
    The Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on September 24 and 25, 2013, to explore the scientific and policy dimensions of the impacts of global environmental change on infectious disease dynamics. Participants examined and discussed the observed and likely influences of environmental factors, acting both individually and synergistically on infectious disease dynamics. A range of approaches to improve global readiness and capacity for surveillance, detection, and response to emerging microbial threats to plant, animal, and human health in the face of ongoing global environmental change was also discussed.
  • The Cost of Inaction for Young Children Globally - Workshop ... Released: August 20, 2014
    The Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally, which has now launched, went through a yearlong planning process with initial planning grants by the Bernard Van Leer Foundation and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. The first planning meeting took place in March 2013 and the second one in June 2013. Out of those two meetings and discussions with multiple leaders in the field, most of whom are here today, came the vision, objectives, and goals for the Forum on Investing in Young Children Globally.
  • Evaluation Design for Complex Global Initiatives – Workshop ... Released: June 26, 2014
    On January 7–8, 2014, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) held a workshop to explore examples of recent evaluation experiences that have drawn on an array of available methodologies applied in different ways to evaluate health and development initiatives. The workshop was an opportunity to reflect on the relative benefits and limitations of different evaluation design options that can be used within the context of a large-scale, complex initiative to reach credible conclusions and recommendations and to improve the implementation and performance of the evaluated initiative. This document summarizes the workshop.
  • Assessing Health Professional Education - Workshop ... Released: April 30, 2014
    In an era of evolving technology and changing health and health care environments, creative thinking about assessment methods and tools could be the driver for innovations that are affordable, easily integrated into education, and assess competencies at all levels. On October 9-10, 2013, the IOM Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education held a workshop to explore the challenges, opportunities, and innovations in assessment across the education-to-practice continuum. Issues such as assessment of learners and educators of IPE and team-based care were discussed.
  • Microbial Ecology in States of Health and Disease - Workshop ... Released: February 18, 2014
    Investigations of microbial ecology in a variety of organisms and contexts have begun to illuminate the properties of host-associated microorganisms. These observations have revealed a complex and dynamic network of interactions across the spectrum of host, microbe, and environmental niches that may influence states of health and disease. Alterations in the composition and dynamics of the human microbiome have been associated with a variety of complex diseases — including such chronic conditions as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and inflammatory bowel diseases. This ecologically-informed view is a paradigm shift away from the conventional "one-microbe, one-disease" perspective of infection and may lead to new insights and approaches to health maintenance, disease prevention, and treatment methods in humans, animals, and plants. The IOM Forum on Microbial Threats held a public workshop in Washington, DC, to explore the scientific and therapeutic implications of microbial ecology in health and disease.