About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to ... Released: July 28, 2004
    Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products. In this report, the committee recommended that greater scrutiny should be given to foods containing new compounds or unusual amounts of naturally occurring substances, regardless of the method used to create them.
  • Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in ... Released: April 26, 2004
    An IOM report, titled Monitoring Metabolic Status: Predicting Decrements in Physiological and Cognitive Performance during Military Operations, examines current and needed technologies and information that will provide information for command decisions relative to the physiological and psychological "readiness" of each combat service member. Specifically, the report identifies the most promising biomarkers for the prediction of health deterioration, tools for monitoring metabolic status in the field, algorithms to interpret data, and current research investments that may lead to revolutionary advances.
  • Dietary Supplements: A Framework for Evaluating Safety ... Released: April 01, 2004
    Although vitamin and supplement manufacturers are restricted from claiming that using their products leads to therapeutic benefits, surveys show that many people take supplements for purposes such as treating colds or alleviating depression. According to other survey data, the majority of consumers believe these products to be either reasonably or completely safe. To bolster the FDA's ability to evaluate the safety of dietary supplements, the Institute of Medicine report Dietary Supplements: A Framework for Evaluating Safety outlines a science-based process for assessing supplement ingredients, even when data about a substance's safety in humans is scarce.
  • Infant Formula: Evaluating the Safety of New Ingredients ... Released: March 01, 2004
    Infant formulas are liquids or reconstituted powders fed to infants and young children to serve as substitutes for human milk. Although existing federal guidelines and regulations for evaluating the safety of food ingredients have worked well for conventional substances (e.g., vitamins, minerals), they are not sufficient to address the diversity of potential new ingredients proposed by manufacturers to develop formulas that mimic human milk, says a report from the IOM.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium ... Released: February 11, 2004
    The Food and Nutrition Board released the sixth in a series of reports presenting dietary reference values for the intake of nutrients by Americans and Canadians. This new report establishes nutrient recommendations on water, salt and potassium to maintain health and reduce chronic disease risk.
  • Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition ... Released: December 11, 2003
    According to a new FNB report, titled Dietary Reference Intakes: Guiding Principles for Nutrition Labeling and Fortification, government authorities in the United States and Canada should use the current Dietary Reference Intake values (DRIs) to update nutrition information on food and dietary supplement labels so that consumers can compare products more easily and make informed food choices based on the latest science.
  • Food Chemicals Codex: Fifth Edition : Health and Medicine ... Released: October 09, 2003
    The Fifth Edition features 52 new monographs on food additives and generally-recognized-as-safe (GRAS) substances, and 48 new monographs on flavoring agents, for a total of over 1000 monographs.
  • Weight Management: State of the Science and Opportunities ... Released: August 01, 2003
    The current epidemic of overweight and obesity in the United States affects the military services. The pool of available recruits is reduced because of failure to meet body composition standards for entry into the services, a high percentage of individuals exceeding military weight-for-height standards at the time of entry into the service leave the military before completing their term of enlistment. Weight Management: State of the Science and Opportunities for Military Programs is the latest in a series of reports focused on improving the nutrition, health and performance of the U.S. military personnel.
  • Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply ... Released: July 01, 2003
    This report recommends policy options to reduce exposure to dioxins while considering how implementing these options could both reduce health risks and affect nutrition, particularly in sensitive and highly exposed groups, if dietary changes are suggested.
  • Reducing Stress Fracture in Physically Active Military Women ... Released: May 21, 2003
    The incidence of stress fractures of the lower extremities during U.S. military basic training is significantly higher among female military recruits than among male recruits. As part of the Defense Women's Health Research Program, this report evaluates the impact of diet, genetic predisposition, and physical activity on bone mineral and calcium status in young servicewomen.