Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Applying a Health Lens to Decision Making in Non-Health ...
Released: March 27, 2014
Health is influenced by a variety of factors, many of which fall outside the health care delivery sector. These determinants of health include the characteristics of where people live, work, learn, and play. Decision and policy making in areas such as transportation, housing, and education at different levels of government, as well as in the private sector, can have far-reaching impacts on health. There has been increasing dialogue on incorporating a health perspective into policies, programs, and projects outside the health field. The IOM held a workshop to foster cross-sectoral dialogue and to consider the opportunities for and barriers to improving the conditions for health in the course of achieving other sectors’ objectives, such as economic development and efficient public transit.
Sports-Related Concussions in Youth: Improving the Science ...
Released: October 30, 2013
Despite growing awareness of sports-related concussions and campaigns to educate athletes, coaches, physicians, and parents of young athletes about concussion recognition and management, confusion and controversy persist in many areas. The IOM and the National Research Council formed an expert committee to review the science of sports-related concussions in youth from elementary school through young adulthood, as well as in military personnel and their dependents. The report finds that while some studies provide useful information, much remains unknown about the extent of concussions in youth; how to diagnose, manage, and prevent concussions; and the short- and long-term consequences of concussions as well as repetitive head impacts that do not result in concussion symptoms.
Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving ...
Released: October 07, 2013
In a time of rapidly changing environments and evolving technologies, health professionals and those who train them are being challenged to work beyond their traditional comfort zones and often in teams. A new professionalism might be a mechanism for achieving improved outcomes by applying a “transdisciplinary professionalism” throughout health care and wellness that emphasizes cross-disciplinary responsibilities and accountabilities. The IOM held a workshop to discuss how a shared understanding can be integrated into education and practice to promote a transdisciplinary model of professionalism. Participants in the workshop also explored the barriers to transdisciplinary professionalism as well as the impact of an evolving professional context on health system users, learners, and others within the health system.
Population Health Implications of the Affordable Care Act ...
Released: October 07, 2013
Several provisions of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) offer an unprecedented opportunity to shift the focus of health experts, policy makers, and the public beyond health care delivery to the broader array of factors that play a role in shaping health outcomes. The shift includes a growing recognition that the health care delivery system is responsible for only a modest proportion of what makes and keeps Americans healthy. The IOM Roundtable on Population Health Improvement held a workshop to explore the likely impact on population health improvement of various provisions within the ACA.
Nutrition Education in the K-12 Curriculum: The Role of ...
Released: July 15, 2013
With approximately one-third of America’s young people overweight or obese, the childhood obesity epidemic is an urgent public health problem. The 2012 IOM report, Accelerating Progress in Obesity Prevention: Solving the Weight of the Nation, recommended making schools a focal point for obesity prevention. The development and implementation of K-12 nutrition curriculum benchmarks, guides, or standards would constitute a critical step in achieving this recommendation. The IOM held a workshop to discuss the merits and potential uses of a set of national nutrition education curriculum standards and learning objectives for elementary and secondary school children.
Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and ...
Released: May 23, 2013
Currently, less than half of youth meet the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services’ Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans recommendation of at least 60 minutes of daily vigorous to moderate-intensity physical activity, meaning that today, kids exercise less. Kids’ health risks are increased by a lack of physical activity, which can also jeopardize their well-being throughout their lives. Physical activity is also critical to kids’ cognitive development and academic success. The school environment is key in encouraging and providing opportunities for kids to be active. In this light, the IOM was asked to examine the status of physical activity and physical education efforts in schools, how physical activity and fitness affect health outcomes, and what can be done to help schools get kids to become more active—ultimately improving kids’ health.
Interprofessional Education for Collaboration: Learning How ...
Released: May 13, 2013
Over the last 100 years, much of the landscape has changed with regards to the health professions and the settings in which these professionals work. Due to societal shifts and technological innovations, changes to the health professions are underway in many parts of the world that call for new models for how health professionals are educated. The IOM Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education held two workshops which set the stage for defining and understanding interprofessional education and provided living histories of speakers from around the world who shared experiences working in and between Interprofessional education and Interprofessional or collaborative practice.
Fitness Measures and Health Outcomes in Youth : Health and ...
Released: September 27, 2012
Physical fitness affects our ability to function and be active. At poor levels, it is associated with such health outcomes as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Physical fitness testing in American youth was established on a large scale in the 1950s with an early focus on performance-related fitness that gradually gave way to an emphasis on health-related fitness. In this report, the IOM assesses the relationship between youth fitness test items and health outcomes, recommends the best fitness test items, provides guidance for interpreting fitness scores, and provides an agenda for needed research.
The Early Childhood Care and Education Workforce ...
Released: November 15, 2011
Early childhood care and education (ECCE) settings offer an opportunity to provide children with a solid beginning in all areas of their development. The quality and efficacy of these settings depend largely on the individuals within the ECCE workforce. Policy makers need a complete picture of ECCE teachers and caregivers in order to tackle the persistent challenges facing this workforce. The IOM and the National Research Council hosted a workshop to describe the ECCE workforce and outline its parameters. Speakers explored issues in defining and describing the workforce, the marketplace of ECCE, the effects of the workforce on children, the contextual factors that shape the workforce, and opportunities for strengthening ECCE as a profession.
Occupational Health Nurses and Respiratory Protection ...
Released: August 02, 2011
Occupational health nurses (OHNs) are front-line advocates for preventing illness and injury and protecting health in a variety of workplace settings, including the areas of agriculture, construction, health care, manufacturing, and public safety. OHNs need education and training in respiratory protection in order to ensure both their safety and the safety of America’s workers. At the request of the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the IOM examined existing respiratory protection curricula and made recommendations to improve education and training in respiratory protection for OHNs. The IOM finds that current respiratory protection education receives varying amounts of dedicated time and resources and is taught using a variety of approaches. Several recommendations are made to improve the respiratory protection education and training of OHNs.