Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Policy Issues in the Clinical Development and Use of ...
Released: July 19, 2016
To examine challenges in the development and implementation of immunotherapies into clinical practice and explore strategies to overcome them, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held the workshop “Policy Issues in the Clinical Development and Use of Immunotherapy for Cancer” on February 29 and March 1, 2016, in Washington, DC.
Health Risks of Indoor Exposure to Particulate Matter ...
Released: July 06, 2016
The health effects of outdoor exposure to particulate matter (PM) are the subject of both research attention and regulatory action. Although much less studied to date, indoor exposure to PM—which can result from particles infiltrating from the outdoors and from various indoor sources including candles, cooking, and smoking—is gaining attention as a potential source of adverse health effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently commissioned the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to hold a workshop examining what is known about indoor exposure to PM, examining sources of particles, their interaction with other elements of the indoor environment, exposure levels indoors, potential health concerns, ways to limit exposure, vulnerable populations, and means of communicating exposure risks and strategies to reduce exposures.
Eliminating the Public Health Problem of Hepatitis B and C in ...
Released: April 11, 2016
Viral hepatitis is the seventh leading cause of death in the world, killing more people than road traffic injuries, HIV and AIDS, or diabetes. Every year chronic viral hepatitis, of which hepatitis B and C are the most common forms, kills a million people, roughly 20,000 of them in the United States. These deaths could be prevented. Hepatitis B vaccine conveys 95 percent immunity, and new therapies for hepatitis C cure the vast majority of patients.
Global Health Impacts of Vector-Borne Diseases: Workshop ...
Released: April 05, 2016
Pathogens transmitted among humans, animals, or plants by insects and arthropod vectors have been responsible for significant morbidity and mortality throughout recorded history. Such vector-borne diseases—including malaria, dengue, yellow fever, plague, trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis—together accounted for more human disease and death in the 17th through early 20th centuries than all other causes combined. Domestic and international capabilities to detect, identify, and effectively respond to vector-borne diseases are limited.
Cancer Care in Low-Resource Areas: Cancer Prevention and ...
Released: March 10, 2016
Effective low-cost cancer control options are available for some malignancies, but these interventions remain inaccessible for many people in the world, especially those residing in low-resource communities. Disparities in cancer outcomes can also be found in high-income countries—communities within wealthier nations especially if they have challenges accessing cancer prevention and cancer care services.
Biomarker Tests for Molecularly Targeted Therapies: Key to ...
Released: March 04, 2016
Every patient is unique, and the evolving field of precision medicine aims to ensure that the right treatment is delivered to the right patient at the right time. To achieve this, health care providers are increasingly turning to advanced technologies known as biomarker tests for molecularly targeted therapies.
Ovarian Cancers: Evolving Paradigms in Research and Care ...
Released: March 02, 2016
Although recent years have seen promising advances in cancer research, there remain surprising gaps in the fundamental knowledge about and understanding of ovarian cancer, including basic biology, risk factors, diagnosis, delivery of care, and survivorship
Potential Research Priorities to Inform Public Health and ...
Released: February 29, 2016
Given the recent rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) throughout the Americas and the presence of its vector mosquito species within parts of the United States, RADM Nicole Lurie, Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), determined an urgent need for additional research to better characterize ZIKV, especially those issues related to the means of transmission and infection during pregnancy.
Mitochondrial Replacement Techniques: Ethical, Social, and ...
Released: February 03, 2016
Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRT) are designed to prevent the transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diseases from mother to child. These diseases vary in presentation and severity, but common symptoms include developmental delays, seizures, weakness and fatigue, muscle pain, vision loss, and heart problems, leading to morbidity and in some cases premature death.
Global Health Risk Framework: Governance for Global Health ...
Released: January 13, 2016
Since the 2014 Ebola outbreak, many public- and private-sector leaders have experienced a need for improved management of global public health emergencies. The effects of the Ebola epidemic go well beyond the three hardest-hit countries and beyond the health sector. Education, child protection, commerce, transportation, and human rights have all suffered. The National Academy of Medicine has managed an independent, international commission on improving international management and response to outbreaks. As input to this effort, the Institute of Medicine convened four workshops in the summer of 2015 to inform the commission report. These workshops examined questions of resilient health systems, research and development of medical products, pandemic financing, and governance for global health. Each workshop gathered diverse perspectives on a range of policies, operations, and options for collaboration to improve the global health system.