About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • The Role of Clinical Studies for Pets with Naturally Occurring ... Released: October 30, 2015
    Recently, there has been renewed interest in comparative oncology— the study of naturally developing cancers in animals as models for human disease—as one way to improve cancer drug development and reduce attrition of investigational agents. Tumors that spontaneously develop in pet dogs and other companion animals as a result of normal aging share many characteristics with human cancers, such as histological appearance, tumor genetics, biological behavior, molecular targets, and therapeutic response.
  • Providing Sustainable Mental and Neurological Health Care ... Released: October 01, 2015
    Mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders are the leading cause of disability and the 10th leading cause of death worldwide. Despite this high burden, there is a significant shortage of resources available to prevent, diagnose, and treat these disorders. Approximately four out of five people with serious MNS disorders living in low- and middle-income countries do not receive needed health services, with Sub-Saharan Africa having one of the largest treatment gaps.
  • Assessing and Improving the Interpretation of Breast Images ... Released: September 24, 2015
    Since 2005, a substantial new body of research pertaining to mammography interpretation has been published. To explore this evidence and its policy implications, the IOM’s National Cancer Policy Forum, with support from the American Cancer Society (ACS), brought together experts and members of the public for the workshop, “Assessing and Improving the Interpretation of Breast Images,” which was held on May 12 and 13, 2015, in Washington, DC. At this workshop, clinicians and researchers, along with representatives from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), National Cancer Institute (NCI), and patient advocacy organizations, discussed potential options for action to improve the quality of mammography interpretation.
  • Non-Invasive Neuromodulation of the Central Nervous System ... Released: July 27, 2015
    Given the growing interest in non-invasive neuromodulation technologies, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders convened a workshop, inviting a range of stakeholders—including developers of devices and new technologies, researchers, clinicians, ethicists, regulators, and payers—to explore the opportunities, challenges, and ethical questions surrounding the development, regulation, and reimbursement of these devices for the treatment of nervous system disorders as well as for non-therapeutic uses, including cognitive and functional enhancement.
  • Enabling Discovery, Development, and Translation of ... Released: July 22, 2015
    On February 24, 2015, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous Disorders convened key stakeholders at a workshop in Washington, DC, to explore how best to enable the discovery, development, and translation of treatments for cognitive dysfunction in depression, including a focus on the regulatory path forward.
  • Comprehensive Cancer Care for Children and Families ... Released: July 20, 2015
    To examine specific opportunities and suggestions for driving optimal care delivery supporting survival with high quality of life, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) and the American Cancer Society co-hosted a workshop on “Comprehensive Cancer Care for Children and Their Families,” which convened experts and members of the public on March 9 and 10, 2015, in Washington, DC.
  • Financial Incentives to Encourage Development of Therapies ... Released: July 06, 2015
    The Institute of Medicine (IOM) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders, in collaboration with the IOM Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation, convened a workshop on January 20–21, 2015, to explore policy changes that might increase private sector investment in research and development (R&D) innovation that fills unmet medical needs for CNS disorders.
  • Developing a 21st Century Neuroscience Workforce ... Released: April 21, 2015
    Given the changing landscape resulting from technological advances and the growing importance of interdisciplinary and collaborative science, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders convened a workshop on October 28 and 29, 2014, in Washington, DC, to explore future workforce needs and how these needs should inform training programs.
  • Policy Issues in the Development and Adoption of Biomarkers ... Released: April 02, 2015
    A long-held goal in oncology has been to develop therapies that target the specific abnormalities in each patient’s cancer rather than simply treating cancers based on the tissue of origin. In the past decade, advances in technology have enabled researchers to relatively quickly and inexpensively determine, in minute detail, the genetic makeup of tumors.However, many challenges remain in effectively and efficiently developing new targeted cancer therapies and the biomarker tests that indicate which patients will be responsive to them, and in implementing them appropriately in clinical practice. These challenges include many policy issues, such as the level of oversight needed for test development and use, levels of evidence necessary for reimbursement decisions, and ways to meet informational needs of patients and care providers.
  • Emerging Viral Diseases: The One Health Connection ... Released: March 26, 2015
    Over the course of more than two decades, beginning with the landmark report Microbial Threats to Health in the United States (IOM, 1992), the Forum on Microbial Threats and its predecessors within the Institute of Medicine have examined the growing body of research on Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) and the growing list of diseases that fit this description.