About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D : Health ... Released: November 30, 2010
    Calcium and vitamin D are two essential nutrients long known for their role in bone health. However, the public has heard conflicting messages about the benefits of calcium and vitamin D and also about how much they need to be healthy. The IOM concludes that there is a strong body of evidence that substantiates the importance of vitamin D and calcium in promoting bone growth and maintenance but there is little evidence of other health benefits.
  • Planning a WIC Research Agenda - Workshop Summary ... Released: November 12, 2010
    In 2009, the U.S. Department of Agriculture received $15 million to conduct research related to its Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, more commonly known as WIC. The IOM’s Food and Nutrition Board held a public workshop on July 20-21, 2010, to discuss priorities and needs for research on the short- and long-term health effects of the program.
  • Child and Adult Care Food Program: Aligning Dietary ... Released: November 04, 2010
    The Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) supports the nutrition and health of more than 3 million infants and children and more than 114,000 impaired or older adults. At the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the IOM examined meal requirements for CACFP and recommends updates, consistent with current dietary guidance that promotes consuming more healthful, nutritious foods.
  • Providing Healthy and Safe Foods as We Age - Workshop ... Released: November 03, 2010
    Does a longer life mean a healthier life? The number of adults over 65 in the United States is growing, but many may not be aware that they are at greater risk from foodborne diseases and their nutritional needs change as they age. The IOM’s Food Forum held a workshop October 29-30, 2009, to discuss food safety and nutrition concerns for older adults and the future challenges to providing healthy and safe foods to aging populations.
  • Examination of Front-of-Package Nutrition Rating Systems ... Released: October 13, 2010
    In recent years, food manufacturers have begun to include “front-of-package” (FOP) labeling on their food packaging to convey nutrition messages to consumers. In considering how FOP labeling should be used as a nutrition education tool in the future, the IOM concludes that it would be useful if FOP labeling declare calories, serving size, saturated fats, trans fats, and sodium, as this information is most closely related to obesity and prominent health conditions.
  • Enhancing Food Safety: The Role of the Food and Drug ... Released: June 08, 2010
    Foodborne illnesses cause hundreds of thousands of hospitalizations and thousands of deaths in the United States each year. At the request of Congress, the IOM examined gaps in the current food safety system under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration.
  • Evaluation of Biomarkers and Surrogate Endpoints in Chronic ... Released: May 12, 2010
    Many people naturally assume that the claims made for foods and nutritional supplements have the same degree of scientific grounding as those for medication, but that is not always the case. The IOM recommends that the FDA adopt a consistent scientific framework for biomarker evaluation in order to achieve a rigorous and transparent process.
  • Bridging the Evidence Gap in Obesity Prevention: A ... Released: April 23, 2010
    About 68 percent of U.S. adults aged 20 years or older and nearly 32 percent of U.S. children are overweight or obese. The obesity epidemic poses major challenges for policy makers, public health professionals, and other decision makers who need to act decisively to respond to this widespread health problem. This report presents the IOM’s innovative framework process to guide the use of evidence in decision making about obesity prevention policies and programs and to guide the generation of new and relevant evidence.
  • Strategies to Reduce Sodium Intake in the United States ... Released: April 20, 2010
    Population-wide reductions in sodium intake could prevent more than 100,000 deaths annually. In 2008, Congress asked the IOM to recommend strategies for reducing sodium intake to levels recommended in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In this report, the IOM concludes that reducing sodium content in food requires new government standards for the acceptable level of sodium.
  • Perspectives from United Kingdom and United States Policy ... Released: March 25, 2010
    Both the United Kingdom and United States are grappling with nationwide epidemics of obesity. The IOM brought together policy makers from the U.K. and U.S. for a workshop on October 22, 2009, to discuss the challenges of and promising approaches to the struggle against obesity.