About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • The Impacts of the Affordable Care Act on Preparedness ... Released: June 13, 2014
    Many of the elements of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) went into effect in 2014, and with the establishment of many new rules and regulations, there will continue to be significant changes to the U.S. health care system. It is unclear what impact these changes will have on medical and public health preparedness programs around the country. The implementation of the ACA provides an opportunity to consider how to better incorporate preparedness into all aspects of the evolving health care system and daily delivery of care. The IOM held a workshop to discuss how changes to the health system as a result of the ACA might impact medical and public health preparedness programs across the nation.
  • Crisis Standards of Care: Lessons from Communities Building ... Released: June 02, 2014
    At the April 2014 Preparedness Summit in Atlanta, Georgia, the Institute of Medicine's Forum on Medical and Public Health Preparedness for Catastrophic Events hosted a session to further the work on Crisis Standards of Care and the fair and ethical allocation of scarce resources during a medical or public health emergency.
  • Drug Repurposing and Repositioning - Workshop Summary ... Released: May 22, 2014
    Recent estimates suggest that, on average, it takes 10 years and at least $1 billion to bring a drug to market. Given this time and expense, pharmaceutical companies have become increasingly interested in finding new uses for existing drugs – a process referred to as drug repurposing or repositioning. In some cases where data have already been acquired, repurposing a drug can save time and money compared to developing a drug de novo. It has also been estimated that a larger percentage of repurposed drugs gain market approval as compared with drugs developed anew. In 2013, the IOM Roundtable on Genomic-Based Research for Health hosted a workshop to assess the current landscape of drug repurposing activities in industry, academia, and government.
  • Hearing Loss and Healthy Aging - Workshop Summary ... Released: May 16, 2014
    Despite the critical importance of communication, many older adults have hearing loss that interferes with their social interactions and enjoyment of life. People may miss words in a conversation, go to fewer public places, or worry about missing an alarm. Despite rapidly advancing technologies and innovative approaches to hearing health care, fewer than one in seven older Americans with hearing loss use hearing aids. In January 2014, the IOM and National Research Council held a workshop to examine the ways in which age-related hearing loss affects healthy aging, and how public and private stakeholders can work together to address hearing loss in older adults as a public health issue.
  • Improving the Efficiency and Effectiveness of Genomic ... Released: May 15, 2014
    The low rate of translation of biomedical discoveries from basic science to clinical application has been a source of frustration for many scientists, clinicians, investors, policy makers, and patients who hoped that investments in research could result in improved products and processes for patients. Although understanding of human health and disease biology has increased, the anticipated deliverables from the Human Genome Project have not yet fully materialized and there has not been a consistent increase in approved drugs for patients over the past 10 years. The IOM Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health hosted a workshop to foster collaboration and the exchange of ideas among stakeholders to improve the utilization of genomic research for practical applications.
  • Regional Disaster Response Coordination to Support Health ... Released: May 02, 2014
    Many catastrophic disaster plans include provisions of support from neighboring jurisdictions that likely will not be available in a regional disaster.
  • Stem Cell Therapies: Opportunities for Ensuring the Quality ... Released: April 30, 2014
    Stem cells offer tremendous promise for advancing health and medicine. Whether being used to replace damaged cells and organs or supporting the body’s intrinsic repair mechanisms, stem cells hold potential to treat such debilitating conditions as Parkinson’s disease, diabetes, and spinal cord injury. Though clinical trials of stem cell treatments are underway around the world, the evidence base to support the medical use of stem cells remains limited. Therapies offered at clinics around the world generally have not received stringent regulatory oversight and have not been tested with rigorous trials. The IOM, the National Academy of Sciences, and the International Society for Stem Cell Research held a workshop to examine the global pattern of treatments and products being offered, the range of patient experiences, and options to maximize the well-being of patients, either by protecting them from dangerous or ineffective treatments or by steering them towards effective treatments.
  • Characterizing Uncertainty in the Assessment of Benefits and ... Released: April 07, 2014
    On February 12, 2014, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Drug Discovery, Development, and Translation (the Forum) held a public workshop as the first of a two-part series to advance the development of more systematic and structured approaches to characterize and communicate the sources of uncertainty in the assessment of benefits and risks, as well as their implications for pharmaceutical regulatory decisions.
  • Health Standards for Long Duration and Exploration ... Released: April 02, 2014
    As the US space program evolves, propelled in part by increasing international and commercial collaborations, long duration or exploration spaceflights – such as extended stays on the International Space Station or missions to Mars – become more realistic. These types of missions will likely expose crews to levels of known risk that are beyond those allowed by current health standards, as well as to a range of risks that are poorly characterized, uncertain, and perhaps unforeseeable. NASA asked the IOM to outline the ethics principles and practices that should guide the agency’s decision making for future long duration or exploration missions that fail to meet existing health standards. The IOM’s report identifies the an ethics framework, which builds on the work of NASA and others, and presents a set of recommendations for ethically assessing and responding to the challenges associated with health standards for long duration and exploration spaceflight.
  • Conflict of Interest and Medical Innovation: Ensuring Integrity ... Released: March 21, 2014
    The translation of research advances into clinical applications has been slower than anticipated due in part to the complexity of biology as well as the cost and time it takes to develop a product. Pharmaceutical companies, for example, are adapting their business models to improve the efficiency of product development by putting increasing emphasis on alliances, joint development efforts, early-phase research partnerships, and public-private partnerships. Though the potential benefits of collaboration are significant, the fact that partnerships are becoming more complex with both financial and non-financial relationships, even perceptions of conflict of interest or bias could impact the ability to engage in innovative research collaborations. In June 2013, the IOM Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health held a workshop to explore how to advance medical innovation while protecting the integrity of the research process and maintaining public trust.