About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Ensuring Quality Cancer Care through the Oncology ... Released: April 24, 2009
    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) predicts that by 2020, there will be an 81 percent increase in people living with or surviving cancer but only a 14 percent increase in the number of practicing oncologists. As a result, there may be too few oncologists to meet the population’s need for cancer care. To help address the challenges in overcoming this potential crisis of cancer care, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the workshop “Ensuring Quality Cancer Care through the Oncology Workforce: Sustaining Care in the 21st Century” in Washington, DC on October 20 and 21, 2008.
  • America's Uninsured Crisis: Consequences for Health and ... Released: February 23, 2009
    For decades, the health insurance crisis has grown without any decisive action by policy makers to stop it. Now is the time for action, say the report’s authors, recommending that the President work with Congress and other public and private sector leaders on an urgent basis to achieve health insurance coverage for everyone and, in order to make that coverage sus­tainable, to reduce the costs of health care and the rate of increase in health care spending.
  • Multi-Center Phase III Clinical Trials and NCI Cooperative ... Released: January 23, 2009
    The NCI-sponsored cooperative groups have made important contributions to improving treatment for many types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and childhood cancers. Cooperative group research has been instrumental in establishing innovative treatments that improve outcomes and quality of life. Despite these successes, the Cooperative Group Program has faced a number of challenges that threaten its effectiveness. To address this problem, the National Cancer Policy Forum (NCPF) convened a workshop titled “Multi-Center Phase III Clinical Trials and NCI Cooperative Groups” in Washington, DC, on July 1-2, 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to outline the challenges that the public clinical cancer research enterprise faces, and to identify possible solutions to these challenges.
  • Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and ... Released: December 15, 2008
    Medical residency in the United States aims to prepare recent medical school graduates to practice medicine independently. Residents often work long hours with limited time off to catch up on their sleep. However, many medical educators believe extensive duty hours are essential to provide residents with the educational experiences they need to become competent in diagnosing and treating patients. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety asserts that revisions to medical residents’ workloads and duty hours are necessary to better protect patients against fatigue-related errors and to enhance the learning environment for doctors in training.
  • Implementing Colorectal Cancer Screening - Workshop ... Released: December 11, 2008
    Colorectal cancer screening remains low, despite strong evidence that screening prevents deaths. With the aim to make recommended colorectal cancer screening more widespread, the workshop discussed steps to be taken at the clinic, community, and health system levels.
  • Improving the Quality of Cancer Clinical Trials. Workshop ... Released: May 13, 2008
    Scientists and clinicians seek a new paradigm that could improve the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and overall success rate of cancer clinical trials, while maintaining the highest standards of quality. To explore innovative paradigms for cancer clinical trials and other ways to improve their quality, the National Cancer Policy Forum held a workshop, Improving the Quality of Cancer Clinical Trials, in Washington, DC. The main goals of the workshop were to examine new approaches to clinical trial design and execution.
  • Retooling for an Aging America: Building the Health Care ... Released: April 11, 2008
    The Institute of Medicine charged the ad hoc Committee on the Future Health Care Workforce for Older Americans to determine the health care needs of Americans over 65 years of age and to assess those needs through an analysis of the forces that shape the health care workforce, including education and training, models of care, and public and private programs. The resulting report, Retooling for an Aging America: Building the Health Care Workforce, says that as the population of seniors grows to comprise approximately 20 percent of the U.S. population, they will face a health care workforce that is too small and critically unprepared to meet their health needs.
  • Creating a Business Case for Quality Improvement and ... Released: April 07, 2008
    The Institute of Medicine’s Forum on the Science of Health Care Quality Improvement and Implementation convened a workshop in Washington, D.C. entitled, Creating a Business Case for Quality Improvement and Quality Improvement Research. The overall goal of the workshop was to develop a better understanding of the economic and business disciplines that encourage sustained efforts to improve the quality of health care.
  • Knowing What Works in Health Care: A Roadmap for the ... Released: January 24, 2008
    Solutions to some of the nation’s most pressing health policy problems hinge on the ability to identify which diagnostic, treatment, and prevention services work best for various patients and circumstances. A new Institute of Medicine report, Knowing What Works in Health Care: A Roadmap for the Nation, provides a blueprint for a national program to assess the effectiveness of clinical services and to provide credible, unbiased information about what really works in health care.
  • Opportunities for Coordination and Clarity to Advance the ... Released: October 22, 2007
    A recent report acknowledged the impetus provided by the creation in 2004 of the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and applauded the Department’s 10-year goal for creation of the National Health Information Infrastructure and the high priority given to the creation of standards. This report responds to a request by ONC for IOM to convene a Committee of experts (the Committee) to review and comment on the pace and cohesion of the standards activities it coordinates.