About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.

  • The National Emergency Care Enterprise: Advancing Care ... Released: September 09, 2009
    In 2006, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) released a series of three reports on the Future of Emergency Care in the United States Health System. Following the release of the IOM reports, the federal government established the “National Emergency Care Enterprise,” a collaborative construct that covers federal government activities across the entire spectrum of emergency care. On May 21-22, 2009, the IOM hosted a workshop to bring stakeholders and policy makers together to examine the progress in the past three years in moving the nation towards the IOM’s broader vision of a “regionalized, coordinated, and accountable” emergency care system.
  • Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for ... Released: August 31, 2009
    The quality of health care in the United States is not optimal, and the pace of improvement is slow. In addition, disparities persist for specific population groups. A fundamental step in identifying which populations are most at risk is to col¬lect data on race, ethnicity, and English-language proficiency. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) formed the Subcommittee on Standardized Col¬lection of Race/Ethnicity Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement to examine ap¬proaches to standardization. In its 2009 report, Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement, the subcommittee recommends collection of more granular ethnicity and language need according to national standards in addition to OMB race and Hispanic ethnicity categories.
  • The US Oral Health Workforce in the Coming Decade. ... Released: August 06, 2009
    The current oral health workforce fails to meet the needs of many segments of the U.S. population. This variability in access to oral health services is often related to geography, insurance status, sociodemographic characteristics, and income levels. The Institute of Medicine hosted a workshop on February 9-11, 2009, jointly sponsored by the California HealthCare Foundation and the Health Resources and Services Administration to discuss these issues.
  • Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness ... Released: June 30, 2009
    Clinical research presents health care providers with information on the natural history and clinical presentations of disease as well as diagnostic and treatment options. Comparative effectiveness research (CER) identifies what works best for which patients under what circumstances. Congress, in the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009, tasked the IOM to recommend national priorities for research questions to be addressed by CER and supported by ARRA funds. In its 2009 report, Initial National Priorities for Comparative Effectiveness Research, the authoring committee establishes a working definition of CER, develops a priority list of research topics, and identifies the necessary requirements to support a robust and sustainable CER enterprise.
  • Ensuring Quality Cancer Care through the Oncology ... Released: April 24, 2009
    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) predicts that by 2020, there will be an 81 percent increase in people living with or surviving cancer but only a 14 percent increase in the number of practicing oncologists. As a result, there may be too few oncologists to meet the population’s need for cancer care. To help address the challenges in overcoming this potential crisis of cancer care, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened the workshop “Ensuring Quality Cancer Care through the Oncology Workforce: Sustaining Care in the 21st Century” in Washington, DC on October 20 and 21, 2008.
  • America's Uninsured Crisis: Consequences for Health and ... Released: February 23, 2009
    For decades, the health insurance crisis has grown without any decisive action by policy makers to stop it. Now is the time for action, say the report’s authors, recommending that the President work with Congress and other public and private sector leaders on an urgent basis to achieve health insurance coverage for everyone and, in order to make that coverage sus­tainable, to reduce the costs of health care and the rate of increase in health care spending.
  • Multi-Center Phase III Clinical Trials and NCI Cooperative ... Released: January 23, 2009
    The NCI-sponsored cooperative groups have made important contributions to improving treatment for many types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, colorectal, and childhood cancers. Cooperative group research has been instrumental in establishing innovative treatments that improve outcomes and quality of life. Despite these successes, the Cooperative Group Program has faced a number of challenges that threaten its effectiveness. To address this problem, the National Cancer Policy Forum (NCPF) convened a workshop titled “Multi-Center Phase III Clinical Trials and NCI Cooperative Groups” in Washington, DC, on July 1-2, 2008. The purpose of the workshop was to outline the challenges that the public clinical cancer research enterprise faces, and to identify possible solutions to these challenges.
  • Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and ... Released: December 15, 2008
    Medical residency in the United States aims to prepare recent medical school graduates to practice medicine independently. Residents often work long hours with limited time off to catch up on their sleep. However, many medical educators believe extensive duty hours are essential to provide residents with the educational experiences they need to become competent in diagnosing and treating patients. Resident Duty Hours: Enhancing Sleep, Supervision, and Safety asserts that revisions to medical residents’ workloads and duty hours are necessary to better protect patients against fatigue-related errors and to enhance the learning environment for doctors in training.
  • Implementing Colorectal Cancer Screening - Workshop ... Released: December 11, 2008
    Colorectal cancer screening remains low, despite strong evidence that screening prevents deaths. With the aim to make recommended colorectal cancer screening more widespread, the workshop discussed steps to be taken at the clinic, community, and health system levels.
  • Improving the Quality of Cancer Clinical Trials. Workshop ... Released: May 13, 2008
    Scientists and clinicians seek a new paradigm that could improve the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and overall success rate of cancer clinical trials, while maintaining the highest standards of quality. To explore innovative paradigms for cancer clinical trials and other ways to improve their quality, the National Cancer Policy Forum held a workshop, Improving the Quality of Cancer Clinical Trials, in Washington, DC. The main goals of the workshop were to examine new approaches to clinical trial design and execution.