About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Ensuring Patient Access to Affordable Cancer Drugs ... Released: November 10, 2014
    To explore the issue of cancer drug costs and patient access to affordable, appropriate drug therapies, the NCPF convened a workshop on ensuring patient access to affordable cancer drugs on June 9, 2014, in Washington, DC.
  • Graduate Medical Education That Meets the Nation's Health ... Released: July 29, 2014
    Since the creation of the Medicare and Medicaid programs in 1965, the public has provided tens of billions of dollars to fund graduate medical education (GME), the period of residency and fellowship that is provided to physicians after they receive a medical degree; however, there is a striking absence of transparency and accountability in the GME financing system for producing the types of physicians that the nation needs. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) formed an expert committee to conduct an independent review of the governance and financing of the GME system. In its report, Graduate Medical Education That Meets the Nation’s Health Needs, the committee provides recommendations and an initial road¬map for reforming the Medicare GME payment system and building an infrastructure that can drive more strategic investment in the nation’s physician workforce.
  • Contemporary Issues for Protecting Patients in Cancer ... Released: July 02, 2014
    On February 24 and 25, 2014, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the Institute of Medicine convened a workshop to frame and discuss contemporary issues in human subjects protections as they pertain to cancer research, with the goal of identifying potential relevant policy actions. This document summarizes the workshop.
  • Identifying and Addressing the Needs of Adolescents and ... Released: November 04, 2013
    Cancer is the leading disease-related cause of death in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). Each year, nearly 70,000 AYAs between the ages of 15 and 39 are diagnosed with cancer. Adolescents and young adults face a variety of unique short- and long-term health and psychosocial issues. Many programs for cancer treatment, survivorship care, and psychosocial support do not focus on the specific needs and risks of AYA cancer patients. The IOM’s National Cancer Policy Forum held a workshop to facilitate discussion about gaps and challenges in caring for AYA cancer patients and potential strategies and actions to improve the quality of their care.
  • Delivering High-Quality Cancer Care: Charting a New Course ... Released: September 10, 2013
    The IOM examined the quality of cancer care in the United States and concluded that the cancer care delivery system is in crisis due to a growing demand for cancer care, increasing complexity of treatment, a shrinking workforce, and rising costs. Changes across the board are urgently needed. All stakeholders – including cancer care teams, patients and their families, researchers, quality metrics developers, and payers, as well as HHS, other federal agencies, and industries – must reevaluate their current roles and responsibilities in cancer care and work together to develop a higher quality care delivery system. Working toward the recommendations outlined in this report, the cancer care community can improve the quality of life and outcomes for people facing a cancer diagnosis.
  • Variation in Health Care Spending: Target Decision Making ... Released: July 24, 2013
    For over three decades, researchers have documented large, systematic variation in Medicare fee-for-service spending and service use across geographic regions, seemingly unrelated to health outcomes. This variation has been interpreted by many to imply that high spending areas are overusing or misusing medical care. Policymakers, seeking strategies to reduce Medicare costs, naturally wonder if cutting payment rates to high cost areas would save money without adversely affecting Medicare beneficiary health care quality and outcomes. Yet, many have cautioned that geographically-based payment policies may have adverse effects if higher costs are caused by other variables like beneficiary burden of illness, or area policies that affect health outcomes.
  • Implementing a National Cancer Clinical Trials System for the ... Released: July 15, 2013
    Recognizing the recent transformative advances in cancer research that necessitate modernization in how cancer clinical trials are run, as well as inefficiencies and other challenges impeding the national cancer clinical trials program, the National Cancer Institute asked the IOM to develop a set of recommendations to improve the federally funded cancer clinical trials system. These recommendations were published in a 2010 IOM report. In 2011, the IOM’s National Cancer Policy Forum (NCPF) held a workshop to engage stakeholders in discussions about the changes they planned to implement in response to the IOM report. Two years later, the NCPF held a second workshop in which stakeholders reported the changes that they have made thus far to address the IOM recommendations, and discussed additional actions needed to improve the system.
  • Sharing Clinical Research Data - Workshop Summary : Health ... Released: March 29, 2013
    Pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers, and government agencies compile large quantities of clinical research data, which, if shared more widely both within and across sectors, could improve public health, enhance patient safety, and spur drug development. Despite several barriers to data sharing, there is increasing acknowledgement among researchers of the importance and potential benefits to sharing clinical research data at various stages of the research, discovery, and development pipeline. The IOM hosted a workshop to explore the benefits of sharing clinical research data, the barriers to such sharing, and strategies to address these barriers to facilitate the development of safe, effective therapeutics and diagnostics.
  • Geographic Variation in Health Care Spending and Promotion ... Released: March 22, 2013
    For over three decades, researchers have documented large, systematic variation in Medicare fee-for-service spending and service use across geographic regions, seemingly unrelated to health outcomes. This variation has been interpreted by many to imply that high spending areas are overusing or misusing medical care. Policymakers, seeking strategies to reduce Medicare costs, naturally wonder if cutting payment rates to high cost areas would save money without adversely affecting Medicare beneficiary health care quality and outcomes. Yet, many have cautioned that geographically-based payment policies may have adverse effects if higher costs are caused by other variables like beneficiary burden of illness, or area policies that affect health outcomes.
  • Delivering Affordable Cancer Care in the 21st Century ... Released: February 11, 2013
    Spending on health care currently accounts for 18 percent of the United States’ GDP. By 2037, that percentage is expected to increase to 25 percent of GDP. Spending on cancer care is expected to increase because of the rapid influx of new cancer diagnoses as the population ages. Also, as more expensive therapies and technologies become the standard of care, there are concerns that the costs of cancer treatment could begin to outpace health care inflation as a whole. The IOM held a workshop to examine the drivers of current and projected cancer care costs as well as potential ways to curb these costs while maintaining or improving the quality of care.