About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Cancer Control Opportunities in Low- and Middle-Income ... Released: February 01, 2007
    Cancer is generally low or absent on the health agenda of most the world’s low- and middle-income countries (LMCs), even as it is growing as a share of these countries’ overall disease burden. In light of this situation, the National Cancer Institute and the American Cancer Society asked the Institute of Medicine to study the issue and provide an assessment and recommendations to tackle the problem.
  • Preventing HIV Infection among Injecting Drug Users in High ... Released: September 15, 2006
    The sharing of contaminated injecting equipment has become a driving force behind the global AIDS epidemic and is the primary mode of HIV transmission in many countries, particularly throughout Eastern Europe, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and significant parts of Asia. In response to this crisis, in 2005 the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation commissioned the Institute of Medicine to evaluate strategies for preventing HIV transmission among injecting drug users.
  • Addressing Foodborne Threats to Health: Policies, Practices ... Released: September 15, 2006
    Foodborne agents have been estimated to cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,200 deaths in the United States each year. In order to examine issues critical to the protection of the nation’s food supply, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on October 25 and 26, 2005, in Washington, D.C. to explore existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of foodborne threats to health.
  • Ending the War Metaphor: The Changing Agenda for ... Released: June 23, 2006
    The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted the public workshop Ending the War Metaphor: The Future Agenda for Unraveling the Host-Microbe Relationship, aimed to inform the Forum, the public, and policymakers of the dynamic host-microbe-environment relationships.
  • Globalization, Biosecurity, and the Future of the Life Sciences ... Released: April 10, 2006
    Biomedical advances have made it possible to identify and manipulate features of living organisms in useful ways -- leading to improvements in public health, agriculture, and other areas. However, coordinated global efforts are needed to reduce the growing risk that new advances in these areas will be used to make novel biological weapons or misused by careless groups and individuals. The report recommends multidisciplinary measures to identify and mitigate such dangers over the next five to 10 years.
  • The Impact of Globalization on Infectious Disease Emergence ... Released: March 03, 2006
    As transborder mobility of humans, animals, food, and feed products increases, so does the threat of the spread of dangerous pathogens and infectious disease. While new global markets have created unprecedented economic opportunities and growth, the benefits have not been equally distributed, and the risks--especially the health risks--of our increasingly interconnected and fast-paced world continue to grow. On April 16 and 17, 2002, the Forum on Microbial Threats conducted a working group discussion on the influence of globalization on the emergence and control of infectious diseases.
  • Ensuring an Infectious Disease Workforce: Education and ... Released: February 24, 2006
    A workshop was held June 12-13, 2003, in which presentations and discussion addressed the practical application of technologies, methodologies, and practices related to infectious disease surveillance, prevention, research, and control.
  • Plan for a Short-Term Evaluation of PEPFAR Implementation ... Released: October 31, 2005
    Concern for the over 40 million people infected with HIV and others at risk of infection or otherwise affected through the impact on their families and communities moved the US Congress on behalf of the American people to pass in May 2003 an unprecedented $15 billion international public health initiative--the US Leadership Against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria Act. Congress mandated that the Institute of Medicine review the groundbreaking initiative created by the legislation--the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR).
  • An International Perspective on Advancing Technologies and ... Released: May 01, 2005
    As part of its study, the committee held a workshop at the Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica (National Institute of Public Health) in Cuernavaca, Mexico, in September 2004. The purpose of the workshop was to sample global perspectives on the current advancing technology landscape.
  • Healers Abroad: Americans Responding to the Human ... Released: April 19, 2005
    Healers Abroad: Americans Responding to the Human Resource Crisis in HIV/AIDS, recommends that the federal government create and fund an umbrella organization called the United States Global Health Service (GHS) to mobilize the nation's best health care professionals and other experts to help combat HIV/AIDS in hard-hit African, Caribbean, and Southeast Asian countries.