Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Live Variola Virus: Considerations for Continuing Research ...
Released: July 10, 2009
Smallpox was a devastating disease that plagued humankind throughout history. Its eradication in 1980 was a monumental achievement for the global health community. All acknowledged stocks of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, or materials that might contain the virus, have been transferred to two World Health Organization approved repositories. During the period since eradication, the World Health Assembly (WHA) has debated whether to retain or destroy these stocks of live variola virus. This question will be reconsidered in 2010. In anticipation of this decision, the IOM was asked to revisit the question of scientific needs for live variola virus.
The US Commitment to Global Health: Recommendations for ...
Released: May 18, 2009
Health is a highly-valued, visible, and concrete investment that has the power to both save lives and enhance the credibility of the United States in the eyes of the world. In 2008, the Institute of Medicine convened the expert Committee on the U.S. Commitment to Global Health to investigate the U.S. commitment to global health and to articulate a vision for future U.S. investments. In its 2009 report, The U.S. Commitment to Global Health: Recommendations for the Public and Private Sectors, the committee concludes that the U.S. government and U.S.-based foundations, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and commercial entities have an opportunity to improve global health.
Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation. A Tribute to the Life ...
Released: April 09, 2009
Dr. Joshua Lederberg – scientist, Nobel laureate, visionary thinker, and friend of the Forum on Microbial Threats – died on February 2, 2008. It was in his honor that the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop on May 20-21, 2008, to examine Dr. Lederberg’s scientific and policy contributions to the marketplace of ideas in the life sciences, medicine, and public policy. The resulting workshop summary, Microbial Evolution and Co-Adaptation, demonstrates the extent to which conceptual and technological developments have, within a few short years, advanced our collective understanding of the microbiome, microbial genetics, microbial communities, and microbe-host-environment interactions.
Achieving Sustainable Global Capacity for Surveillance and ...
Released: December 22, 2008
One of the biggest threats today is the uncertainty surrounding the emergence of a novel pathogen or the re-emergence of a known infectious disease that might result in disease outbreaks with great losses of human life and immense global economic consequences. In June 2008, the Institute of Medicine’s and National Research Council’s Committee on Achieving Sustainable Global Capacity for Surveillance and Response to Emerging Diseases of Zoonotic Origin convened a workshop that addressed the reasons for the transmission of zoonotic disease and explored the current global capacity for zoonotic disease surveillance.
The US Commitment to Global Health: Recommendations for ...
Released: December 09, 2008
At this historic moment, the incoming Obama administration and leaders of the U.S. Congress have the opportunity to advance the welfare and prosperity of people within and beyond the borders of the United States through intensified and sustained attention to better health. The Institute of Medicine—with the support of four U.S. government agencies and five private foundations—formed an independent committee to examine the United States’ commitment to global health and to articulate a vision for future U.S. investments and activities in this area.
Global Climate Change and Extreme Weather Events. ...
Released: September 24, 2008
On December 4 and 5, 2007, the Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop in Washington, DC to consider the possible infectious disease impacts of global climate change and extreme weather events on human, animal, and plant health, as well as their expected implications for global and national security.
Design Considerations for Evaluating the Impact of PEPFAR. ...
Released: September 15, 2008
Design Considerations for Evaluating the Impact of PEPFAR is the summary of a 2-day workshop on methodological, policy, and practical design considerations for a future evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) interventions carried out under the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which was convened by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) on April 30 and May 1, 2007.
Assessment of the Role of Intermittent Preventive Treatment ...
Released: July 10, 2008
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) conduct an independent assessment of the IPTi efficacy studies using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTi-SP) that have been previously conducted by the IPTi Consortium. The IOM convened a committee to evaluate the evidence concerning IPTi-SP, which included addressing issues related to its utility and safety, as well as program management aspects of IPTi. The resulting letter report contains the findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the IOM committee.
Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental ...
Released: March 18, 2008
The Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats convened a workshop—on June 19-20, 2007, in Ft. Collins, CO—entitled Vector-Borne Diseases: Understanding the Environmental, Human Health, and Ecological Connections. The purpose of this public workshop was to examine the global burden of vector-borne diseases of humans, animals, and plants, and to discuss prospects for successful mitigation and response strategies.
Methodological Challenges in Biomedical HIV Prevention ...
Released: February 21, 2008
A new Institute of Medicine report, Methodological Challenges in Biomedical HIV Prevention Trials, discusses various ways to improve the design, monitoring, and analysis of late-stage randomized clinical trials of biomedical interventions to prevent HIV infection. The main goals are to increase the chances that these trials will detect a beneficial effect on HIV infection risk and to more fully assess how adherence to the intervention influences HIV infection risk, and to assess the intervention’s effect on HIV risk behavior.