Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Microbial Ecology in States of Health and Disease - Workshop ...
Released: February 18, 2014
Investigations of microbial ecology in a variety of organisms and contexts have begun to illuminate the properties of host-associated microorganisms. These observations have revealed a complex and dynamic network of interactions across the spectrum of host, microbe, and environmental niches that may influence states of health and disease. Alterations in the composition and dynamics of the human microbiome have been associated with a variety of complex diseases — including such chronic conditions as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and inflammatory bowel diseases. This ecologically-informed view is a paradigm shift away from the conventional "one-microbe, one-disease" perspective of infection and may lead to new insights and approaches to health maintenance, disease prevention, and treatment methods in humans, animals, and plants. The IOM Forum on Microbial Threats held a public workshop in Washington, DC, to explore the scientific and therapeutic implications of microbial ecology in health and disease.
Elder Abuse and Its Prevention - Workshop Summary : Health ...
Released: October 18, 2013
Data suggests that one in 10 older adults in the United States experience physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, or financial exploitation. Elder abuse violates older adults’ fundamental rights to be safe and free from violence. With the global population of adults older than 60 expected to double to 1.2 billion by 2025, the number of older adults will exceed the number of children for the first time in history. Despite the growing magnitude of elder abuse, it has been an underappreciated public health problem. The IOM Forum on Global Violence Prevention held a workshop on elder abuse and its prevention to shed light on this underappreciated and often overlooked form of violence.
The Evidence for Violence Prevention Across the Lifespan ...
Released: October 15, 2013
Evidence shows that violence is not inevitable, but rather can be prevented through approaches that have demonstrated measureable effects in the reduction of violence. Successful and promising violence prevention programs exist that target different types of violence, including self-directed, interpersonal, and collective violence; however, the existing evidence base does not necessarily inform practice or policy making. Furthermore, gaps in the evidence base exist, particularly in the context of interventions in low- and middle-income countries. The IOM Forum on Global Violence Prevention held a workshop to explore the value and application of the evidence for violence prevention across the lifespan and around the world.
Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving ...
Released: October 07, 2013
In a time of rapidly changing environments and evolving technologies, health professionals and those who train them are being challenged to work beyond their traditional comfort zones and often in teams. A new professionalism might be a mechanism for achieving improved outcomes by applying a “transdisciplinary professionalism” throughout health care and wellness that emphasizes cross-disciplinary responsibilities and accountabilities. The IOM held a workshop to discuss how a shared understanding can be integrated into education and practice to promote a transdisciplinary model of professionalism. Participants in the workshop also explored the barriers to transdisciplinary professionalism as well as the impact of an evolving professional context on health system users, learners, and others within the health system.
Interprofessional Education for Collaboration: Learning How ...
Released: May 13, 2013
Over the last 100 years, much of the landscape has changed with regards to the health professions and the settings in which these professionals work. Due to societal shifts and technological innovations, changes to the health professions are underway in many parts of the world that call for new models for how health professionals are educated. The IOM Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education held two workshops which set the stage for defining and understanding interprofessional education and provided living histories of speakers from around the world who shared experiences working in and between Interprofessional education and Interprofessional or collaborative practice.
The Science and Applications of Microbial Genomics ...
Released: April 03, 2013
Over the past several decades, new scientific tools and approaches for detecting microbial species have dramatically enhanced our understanding of the microbial flora and fauna and their dynamic interactions with the environments in which they reside. In June 2012, the IOM Forum on Microbial Threats convened a public workshop to discuss the scientific tools and approaches being used for detecting and characterizing microbial species, and the roles of microbial genomics and metagenomics to better understand the culturable and unculturable microbial world around us.
Evaluation of PEPFAR : Health and Medicine Division
Released: February 20, 2013
Through the President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), the United States has provided an unprecedented level of health and development assistance and health diplomacy around the world. PEPFAR has saved and improved the lives of millions of people; supported HIV prevention, care, and treatment; strengthened systems; and engaged with partner countries to facilitate HIV policy and planning for sustainable responses to their epidemic. The IOM evaluation drew upon a variety of data sources, including quantitative data, extensive document review, and primary qualitative data collection through more than 400 interviews, including some site visits, with diverse stakeholders in 13 PEPFAR partner countries, at PEPFAR’s headquarters, and at other institutions and agencies involved in the global HIV response.
Countering the Problem of Falsified and Substandard Drugs ...
Released: February 13, 2013
Falsified and substandard medicines provide little protection from disease and, worse, can expose consumers to major harm. Bad drugs pose potential threats around the world, but the nature of the risk varies by country, with higher risk in countries with minimal or non-existent regulatory oversight. It is difficult to measure the public health burden of falsified and substandard drugs, the number of deaths they cause, or the amount of time and money wasted using them. The FDA asked the IOM to assess the global public health implications of falsified, substandard, and counterfeit pharmaceuticals to help jumpstart international discourse about this problem.
The Social Biology of Microbial Communities - Workshop ...
Released: December 10, 2012
The vast majority of microorganisms live in highly complex communities within which they lead intensely interactive lives—competing, cooperating, and forming associations with one another and with their living and nonliving host environments. Indeed, microbial communities are intricately intertwined with the biology of all ecosystems on Earth—from the extreme environments of the human gut to deep sea hydrothermal vents and the windswept plains of Antarctica. Despite these observations, very little is actually known about the factors and processes that influence community assembly, stability, and function. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a workshop to explore the emerging science and potential applications of the “social biology” of microbial communities.
Contagion of Violence - Workshop Summary : Health and ...
Released: October 03, 2012
In exploring the occurrence of violence, researchers have recognized the tendency for violent acts to cluster, to spread from place to place, and to mutate from one type to another – similar to the infectious disease model, in which an agent or vector initiates a specific biological pathway leading to symptoms of disease and infectivity. On April 30-May 1, 2012, the IOM held a workshop that focused on the epidemiology of the contagion, possible processes and mechanisms by which violence is transmitted, how contextual factors mitigate or exacerbate the issue, and ways in which the contagion of violence might be interrupted.