Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Contagion of Violence - Workshop Summary : Health and ...
Released: October 03, 2012
In exploring the occurrence of violence, researchers have recognized the tendency for violent acts to cluster, to spread from place to place, and to mutate from one type to another – similar to the infectious disease model, in which an agent or vector initiates a specific biological pathway leading to symptoms of disease and infectivity. On April 30-May 1, 2012, the IOM held a workshop that focused on the epidemiology of the contagion, possible processes and mechanisms by which violence is transmitted, how contextual factors mitigate or exacerbate the issue, and ways in which the contagion of violence might be interrupted.
Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach ...
Released: September 10, 2012
Globalization of the food supply has created conditions favorable for the emergence, reemergence, and spread of food-borne pathogens—compounding the challenge of anticipating, detecting, and effectively responding to food-borne threats to health. In the United States, food-borne agents affect 1 out of 6 individuals and cause approximately 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths each year. A One Health approach to food safety may hold the promise of harnessing and integrating the expertise and resources from across the spectrum of multiple health domains including the human and veterinary medical and plant pathology communities with those of the wildlife and aquatic health and ecology communities. The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on December 13 and 14, 2011 that examined issues critical to the protection of the nation’s food supply.
Communications and Technology for Violence Prevention ...
Released: June 13, 2012
As we learn more about what works to reduce violence, the challenge facing those who work in the field is how to use all of this new information to rapidly deploy or enhance new programs. At the same time, new communications technologies and distribution channels have altered traditional means of communications, and have made community-based efforts to prevent violence possible by making information readily available. How can these new technologies be successfully applied to the field of violence prevention? The IOM’s Forum on Global Violence Prevention held a workshop to explore the intersection of violence prevention and information and communications technology.
Ensuring Safe Foods and Medical Products Through Stronger ...
Released: April 04, 2012
Whether it’s suspect scallions from Mexico or contaminated ingredients from China used in the blood thinner heparin, the FDA is intimately familiar with the daunting task of policing the safety of food and medical products faced by regulators abroad. The FDA is responsible for protecting American consumers from unsafe food, medicines, biologics, and medical products that originate from many different countries and are transported through complex supply chains. The IOM formed a committee to identify the core elements of food, medicine, medical product, and biologics regulatory systems in developing countries; to pin-point the main gaps in these systems; and to design a strategy to leverage the expertise of the FDA and other stakeholders to strengthen regulatory systems abroad.
Country-Level Decision Making for Control of Chronic ...
Released: April 02, 2012
A 2010 IOM report, Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World, found that not only is it possible to reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease and related chronic diseases in developing countries, but also that such a reduction will be critical to achieving global health and development goals. As part a series of follow-up activities to the 2010 report, the IOM held a workshop that aimed to identify what is needed to create tools for country-led planning of effective, efficient, and equitable provision of chronic disease control programs.
The Science and Applications of Synthetic and Systems ...
Released: November 23, 2011
The completion of the initial draft of the human genome sequence in 2001 represented a fundamental shift in the way biology was studied, and allowed for vast post-genomic possibilities. Until the past decade, the work was often painstakingly slow; however, new strategies combining engineering and biological techniques have enhanced researchers' abilities. These new synthetic techniques allow for genes and long chains of DNA to be designed and manufactured from scratch using a computer and relevant chemical compounds, rather than manipulating pieces of existing genes from living cells. The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop March 14-15, 2011 to explore the scientific and policy dimensions of recent developments in genetic engineering and their applications to emerging infectious diseases.
Social and Economic Costs of Violence - Workshop Summary ...
Released: October 25, 2011
Measuring the social and economic costs of violence can be difficult, and most estimates only consider direct economic effects, such as productivity loss or the use of health care services. Communities and societies feel the effects of violence through loss of social cohesion, financial divestment, and the increased burden on the health care and justice systems. Initial estimates show that early violence prevention intervention has economic benefits. The IOM Forum on Global Violence Prevention held a workshop to examine the successes and challenges of calculating direct and indirect costs of violence, as well as the potential cost-effectiveness of intervention.
Preventing Violence Against Women and Children - Workshop ...
Released: September 15, 2011
Across the world, violence against women and children poses a high burden on global health. Women and children are particularly susceptible to violence because they often have fewer rights or lack legal protection. Over the last decade, researchers have gathered data on the growing magnitude of this violence, but many research gaps still remain. January 27-28, 2011, the Forum on Global Violence Prevention held its first workshop to explore the prevention of violence against women and children. The workshop opened the discussion on violence-prevention strategies, as well as ways to prevent the spread of violence from one generation to the next.
Fungal Diseases: An Emerging Threat To Human, Animal, and ...
Released: September 09, 2011
Fungal diseases have contributed to death and disability in humans, triggered global wildlife extinctions and population declines, devastated agricultural crops, and altered forest ecosystem dynamics. Despite the extensive influence of fungi on health and economic well-being, the threats posed by emerging fungal pathogens to life on Earth are often underappreciated and poorly understood. On December 14 and 15, 2010, the IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop to explore the scientific and policy dimensions associated with the causes and consequences of emerging fungal diseases.
The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic ...
Released: June 01, 2011
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) afflict more than 1.4 billion people, many of whom live on less than $1.25 a day. While there are effective ways to manage NTDs, policy-makers and funders have only recently begun to recognize the economic and public health importance of controlling NTDs. The IOM’s Forum on Microbial Threats held a workshop September 21-22, 2010, to discuss the science of and policy surrounding NTDs.