About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Eliminating the Public Health Problem of Hepatitis B and C in ... Released: April 11, 2016
    Viral hepatitis is the seventh leading cause of death in the world, killing more people than road traffic injuries, HIV and AIDS, or diabetes. Every year chronic viral hepatitis, of which hepatitis B and C are the most common forms, kills a million people, roughly 20,000 of them in the United States. These deaths could be prevented. Hepatitis B vaccine conveys 95 percent immunity, and new therapies for hepatitis C cure the vast majority of patients.
  • Ranking Vaccines Applications of a Prioritization Software ... Released: December 19, 2014
    In the Phase III work, the IOM in partnership with the National Academy of Engineering enhanced SMART Vaccines—version 1.1 of the software can be downloaded for free from www.nap.edu/smartvaccines. The supporting report, Ranking Vaccines: Applications of a Prioritization Software Tool, describes: (1) the evaluation of the software in international user-based applications, (2) a general data framework for the software, and (3) the next steps that would increase the use and value of SMART Vaccines.
  • Ranking Vaccines: A Prioritization Software Tool - Phase II ... Released: September 30, 2013
    In 2012, the IOM released Ranking Vaccines: A Prioritization Framework (Phase I: Demonstration of Concept and a Software Blueprint) which offered a framework and proof of concept for a software prototype called SMART Vaccines to account for various factors influencing vaccine prioritization — demographic, economic, health, scientific, business, programmatic, social, policy factors and public concerns. In this report, Ranking Vaccines: A Prioritization Software Tool (Phase II: Prototype of a Decision-Support System) a functional version of SMART Vaccines 1.0 is discussed and elaborated along with its potential application in making decisions about new vaccine development.
  • Childhood Immunization Schedule and Safety: Stakeholder ... Released: January 16, 2013
    Vaccines are among the most safe and effective public health interventions to prevent serious disease and death. Health care providers who vaccinate young children follow a schedule prepared by the U.S. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. New vaccines undergo rigorous testing prior to receiving FDA approval; however, like all medicines and medical interventions, vaccines carry some risk. Driven largely by concerns about potential side effects, there has been a shift in some parents’ attitudes toward the child immunization schedule. HHS asked the IOM to identify research approaches, methodologies, and study designs that could address questions about the safety of the current schedule. The IOM committee uncovered no evidence of major safety concerns associated with adherence to the childhood immunization schedule. Should signals arise that there may be need for investigation, however, the report offers a framework for conducting safety research using existing or new data collection systems.
  • Ranking Vaccines: A Prioritization Framework - Phase I ... Released: May 10, 2012
    Ranking Vaccines: A Prioritization Framework describes a decision-support model and the blueprint of a software called Strategic Multi-Attribute Ranking Tool for Vaccines, or SMART Vaccines, that should help decision makers prioritize new vaccines by accounting for demographic, economic, health, scientific, business, programmatic, social, policy and related factors.
  • Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality : Health ... Released: August 25, 2011
    Immunizations are a cornerstone of the nation’s efforts to protect people from a host of infectious diseases. Though generally very rare or very minor, there are side effects, or “adverse effects,” associated with some vaccines. The IOM reviewed a list of adverse events associated with eight vaccines to evaluate the scientific evidence about the event–vaccine relationship. Using epidemiologic and mechanistic evidence, the committee developed 158 causality conclusions, assigning each relationship between a vaccine and an adverse health problem to one of four causation categories. Overall, the IOM committee concludes that few health problems are caused by or clearly associated with vaccines.
  • Hepatitis and Liver Cancer: A National Strategy for Prevention ... Released: January 11, 2010
    This IOM report concludes that the current approach to the prevention and control of chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C is not working and that new actions must be taken to reduce illnesses and deaths related to these preventable diseases.
  • The Domestic and International Impacts of the 2009-H1N1 ... Released: December 29, 2009
    This report summarizes a workshop held in mid-September 2009 on the domestic and international responses to the H1N1 influenza A pandemic.
  • Priorities for the National Vaccine Plan : Health and Medicine ... Released: December 11, 2009
    The National Vaccine Plan facilitates coordination of the vaccine enterprise across the United States. In this report, the IOM finds that although the National Vaccine Program has had some great successes and can provide examples of excellent coordination, the Plan has not functioned as intended.
  • Battling Malaria: Strengthening the US Military Malaria ... Released: May 25, 2006
    Recognizing the great complexity and expense of the mission to develop a malaria vaccine for the U.S. military in an era of scarce resources, the Department of Defense (DoD) asked the Institute of Medicine (IOM) to conduct a programmatic review of the military Plasmodium falciparum malaria vaccine research and development program. This review recommends ways to overcome barriers to vaccine development and to streamline the department’s research efforts.