About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • The Health of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender ... Released: March 31, 2011
    At a time when lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are becoming more visible in society and more socially acknowledged, clinicians and researchers are faced with incomplete information about their health status. The IOM finds that to advance understanding of the health needs of all LGBT individuals, researchers need more data about the demographics of these populations, improved methods for collecting and analyzing data, and an increased participation of sexual and gender minorities in research.
  • Future Directions for the National Healthcare Quality and ... Released: April 14, 2010
    The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s annual National Healthcare Quality Report (NHQR) and the National Healthcare Disparities Report (NHDR) reveal areas in which health care performance has improved over time and identify major shortcomings. The IOM concludes that the next generation of reports can be improved in ways that would make them more influential in promoting change in the health care system.
  • Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for ... Released: August 31, 2009
    The quality of health care in the United States is not optimal, and the pace of improvement is slow. In addition, disparities persist for specific population groups. A fundamental step in identifying which populations are most at risk is to col¬lect data on race, ethnicity, and English-language proficiency. The Institute of Medicine (IOM) formed the Subcommittee on Standardized Col¬lection of Race/Ethnicity Data for Healthcare Quality Improvement to examine ap¬proaches to standardization. In its 2009 report, Race, Ethnicity, and Language Data: Standardization for Health Care Quality Improvement, the subcommittee recommends collection of more granular ethnicity and language need according to national standards in addition to OMB race and Hispanic ethnicity categories.
  • Use of Dietary Supplements by Military Personnel : Health and ... Released: June 09, 2008
    The use of dietary supplements has become increasingly popular among members of the military. While some supplements may provide benefits to health, others could carry adverse effects that might compromise the readiness and performance of service members. The U.S. Department of Defense, the Samueli Institute, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with additional support from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) review the use of dietary supplements by military personnel, recommending a framework to identify the need for management of dietary supplement use within the military, and developing an approach to report adverse health events.
  • Patterns of Health Care Seeking of Gulf War Registry ... Released: May 31, 2006
    We obtained registrants' medical records, which contained information on outpatient encounters during the 1-year period before their GW deployment, to determine whether registrants with multisymptom illness (cases) have patterns of predeployment health care seeking that are different from those of well registrants (controls).
  • Preliminary Considerations Regarding NASA's ... Released: March 09, 2005
    Extending the spatial and temporal boundaries of human space flight are important goals for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), yet human space flight remains an endeavor with substantial risks. NASA's Bioastronautics Critical Path Roadmap (BCPR) defines risk as "the conditional probability of an adverse event occurring, or a system performance-related inefficiency." This is the interim report of the IOM committee's review of NASA's BCPR. The purpose of this report is to provide NASA with preliminary conclusions regarding the strengths and weakness of the BCPR.
  • Medicare Coverage of Routine Screening for Thyroid ... Released: April 18, 2003
    The serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) assay is a common blood test that is already covered by the Medicare program for the diagnosis and treatment of illness. This report is an inquiry into the additional costs and benefits of also offering this test as a preventive service.