About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation: Proceedings of a Workshop ... Released: September 15, 2017
    Innate and adaptive immunity have become very important areas of investigation for psychiatric, neurologic, and neurodevelopmental disorders, and neurodegeneration resulting from traumatic brain injury. To address these gaps in understanding mechanisms and how to translate that understanding into therapeutics, the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on March 20–21, 2017, bringing together key leaders in the field from industry, academia, and governmental agencies to explore the role and mechanisms of neuroinflammation in a variety of central nervous system diseases.
  • The Drug Development Paradigm in Oncology: Proceedings ... Released: July 24, 2017
    Advances in cancer research have led to an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the development of cancer and how the immune system responds to cancer. This influx of research has led to an increasing number and variety of cancer therapies in the drug development pipeline. Compared with standard chemotherapies, these new cancer therapies may demonstrate evidence of benefit at an earlier stage of development.
  • Cancer Care in Low-Resource Areas: Cancer Treatment ... Released: May 23, 2017
    Though cancer was once considered to be a problem primarily in wealthy nations, low- and middle-income countries now bear a majority share of the global cancer burden. Disparities in cancer outcomes also exist in high-income countries—communities within wealthier nations can experience worse cancer outcomes, especially if they have challenges in accessing cancer prevention and cancer care services.
  • Therapeutic Development in the Absence of Predictive Animal ... Released: March 10, 2017
    Despite the high prevalence and burden of nervous system disorders, development of new therapeutics lags behind other disease areas. Gaps in understanding the underlying pathophysiology, a dearth of biomarkers, and limitations in the capacity of animal models to predict drug efficacy for human brain disorders have contributed to a high rate of late stage failures in drug development and decreased investment in neuroscience research programs at pharmaceutical companies. On September 12-13, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a public workshop to explore opportunities to accelerate drug development absent predictive animal models.
  • International Perspectives on Integrating Ethical, Legal, and ... Released: January 09, 2017
    Emerging neurotechnologies—devices and techniques designed to collect information about the brain or affect its function—are becoming increasingly important due to scientific and technological advances and a persistent need to develop effective therapies to address the large global burden of neurological and psychiatric disease. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)—in collaboration with Arizona State University and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine—held a workshop in Washington, DC, on Neurotechnology and Society: Strengthening Responsible Innovation in Brain Science.
  • Developing Multimodal Therapies for Brain Disorders ... Released: November 18, 2016
    Califf was the keynote speaker at a workshop on multimodality therapies for brain disorders, convened by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous Systems Disorders. The workshop brought together key stakeholders to examine the general principles underlying multimodal therapies and to explore challenges, potential barriers, and opportunities for their development from multiple perspectives, including scientific, clinical, regulatory, and financial. These proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at the workshop.
  • Implementation of Lung Cancer Screening: Proceedings of a ... Released: November 17, 2016
    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States; each year, more people die from lung cancer than from colon, breast, and prostate cancers combined. There has been a push to develop and implement screening strategies for the early detection of lung cancer. The National Lung Screening Trial evaluated the effectiveness of annual screening with low-dose computed tomography to reduce lung cancer mortality among individuals at high risk.
  • Neuroscience Trials of the Future: Proceedings of a Workshop ... Released: August 19, 2016
    On March 3–4, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop in Washington, DC, bringing together key stakeholders to discuss opportunities for improving the integrity, efficiency, and validity of clinical trials for nervous system disorders.
  • Policy Issues in the Clinical Development and Use of ... Released: July 19, 2016
    To examine challenges in the development and implementation of immunotherapies into clinical practice and explore strategies to overcome them, the National Cancer Policy Forum of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held the workshop “Policy Issues in the Clinical Development and Use of Immunotherapy for Cancer” on February 29 and March 1, 2016, in Washington, DC.
  • Cancer Care in Low-Resource Areas: Cancer Prevention and ... Released: March 10, 2016
    Effective low-cost cancer control options are available for some malignancies, but these interventions remain inaccessible for many people in the world, especially those residing in low-resource communities. Disparities in cancer outcomes can also be found in high-income countries—communities within wealthier nations especially if they have challenges accessing cancer prevention and cancer care services.