Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.
Enabling Novel Treatments for Nervous System Disorders by ...
Released: March 08, 2018
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a special challenge to the development of therapeutics for many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Far from acting simply as a physical barrier, the BBB is a complex dynamic system involving several cell types, passive and active transport mechanisms, and adaptive function to control the exchange of substances between the blood and the CNS. Few therapeutic agents readily traverse the BBB to reach the brain or spinal cord, including most small molecule drugs and the vast majority of large molecules such as proteins.
Biomarkers of Neuroinflammation: Proceedings of a Workshop ...
Released: September 15, 2017
Innate and adaptive immunity have become very important areas of investigation for psychiatric, neurologic, and neurodevelopmental disorders, and neurodegeneration resulting from traumatic brain injury. To address these gaps in understanding mechanisms and how to translate that understanding into therapeutics, the Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop on March 20–21, 2017, bringing together key leaders in the field from industry, academia, and governmental agencies to explore the role and mechanisms of neuroinflammation in a variety of central nervous system diseases.
Therapeutic Development in the Absence of Predictive Animal ...
Released: March 10, 2017
Despite the high prevalence and burden of nervous system disorders, development of new therapeutics lags behind other disease areas. Gaps in understanding the underlying pathophysiology, a dearth of biomarkers, and limitations in the capacity of animal models to predict drug efficacy for human brain disorders have contributed to a high rate of late stage failures in drug development and decreased investment in neuroscience research programs at pharmaceutical companies. On September 12-13, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders hosted a public workshop to explore opportunities to accelerate drug development absent predictive animal models.
International Perspectives on Integrating Ethical, Legal, and ...
Released: January 09, 2017
Emerging neurotechnologies—devices and techniques designed to collect information about the brain or affect its function—are becoming increasingly important due to scientific and technological advances and a persistent need to develop effective therapies to address the large global burden of neurological and psychiatric disease. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)—in collaboration with Arizona State University and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine—held a workshop in Washington, DC, on Neurotechnology and Society: Strengthening Responsible Innovation in Brain Science.
Developing Multimodal Therapies for Brain Disorders ...
Released: November 18, 2016
Califf was the keynote speaker at a workshop on multimodality therapies for brain disorders, convened by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous Systems Disorders. The workshop brought together key stakeholders to examine the general principles underlying multimodal therapies and to explore challenges, potential barriers, and opportunities for their development from multiple perspectives, including scientific, clinical, regulatory, and financial. These proceedings chronicle the presentations and discussions at the workshop.
Neuroscience Trials of the Future: Proceedings of a Workshop ...
Released: August 19, 2016
On March 3–4, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop in Washington, DC, bringing together key stakeholders to discuss opportunities for improving the integrity, efficiency, and validity of clinical trials for nervous system disorders.
Assessing the Impact of Applications of Digital Health Records ...
Released: December 08, 2015
On July 20, 2015, the IOM’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a public session at the 2015 Alzheimer’s Association International Conference in Washington, DC, to assess the impact of DHRs on Alzheimer’s disease research. “AD is the most common cause of dementia in older adults.” An estimated 46.8 million people worldwide are currently living with dementia, and the prevalence is expected to double every year for the next 20 years. Given the few therapies currently available to treat the symptoms of AD, compared to other central nervous system disorders, this session explored how DHRs may be used to help improve clinical trial design and methodology for AD research.
Providing Sustainable Mental and Neurological Health Care ...
Released: October 01, 2015
Mental, neurological, and substance use (MNS) disorders are the leading cause of disability and the 10th leading cause of death worldwide. Despite this high burden, there is a significant shortage of resources available to prevent, diagnose, and treat these disorders. Approximately four out of five people with serious MNS disorders living in low- and middle-income countries do not receive needed health services, with Sub-Saharan Africa having one of the largest treatment gaps.
Non-Invasive Neuromodulation of the Central Nervous System ...
Released: July 27, 2015
Given the growing interest in non-invasive neuromodulation technologies, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders convened a workshop, inviting a range of stakeholders—including developers of devices and new technologies, researchers, clinicians, ethicists, regulators, and payers—to explore the opportunities, challenges, and ethical questions surrounding the development, regulation, and reimbursement of these devices for the treatment of nervous system disorders as well as for non-therapeutic uses, including cognitive and functional enhancement.
Enabling Discovery, Development, and Translation of ...
Released: July 22, 2015
On February 24, 2015, the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous Disorders convened key stakeholders at a workshop in Washington, DC, to explore how best to enable the discovery, development, and translation of treatments for cognitive dysfunction in depression, including a focus on the regulatory path forward.