About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Advancing Obesity Solutions Through Investments in the Built ... Released: June 15, 2018
    The built environment—the physical world made up of the homes, buildings, streets, and infrastructure within which we all live, work, and play—underwent changes during the 20th and 21st centuries. These changes contributed to a sharp decline in physical activity and affected access to healthy foods, which have added to the weight gain observed among Americans in recent decades. As such, policies and practices that affect the built environment could affect obesity rates in the United States and improve the health of Americans.
  • Urbanization and Slums: Infectious Diseases in the Built ... Released: June 08, 2018
    On December 12-13, the Forum on Microbial Threats, in collaboration with the Board on Life Sciences hosted a workshop examining "Urbanization and Slums: New Transmission Pathways of Infectious Diseases in the Built Environment."
  • Exploring Early Childhood Care and Education Levers to ... Released: May 30, 2018
    Early care and education programs and providers are ideally suited to partnering with public health and health care organizations to help achieve the shared goals of healthy child development. There are many challenges to tackle and opportunities to maximize on the path to collaboration and improved outcomes, including in preparing and supporting an effective workforce, in financing, and ensuring equity.
  • Financing and Payment Strategies to Support High-Quality ... Released: May 16, 2018
    Those facing serious illness have a range of interconnected medical and non-medical needs, and the way their care is financed has a large impact on the care they receive. Medicare is the predominant payer, but both Medicaid and private payers also play significant roles in financing care for serious illness. In an effort to address the complex needs of people with serious illness, public and private health care payers are testing innovative financing strategies and alternative payment models.
  • Exploring Tax Policy to Advance Population Health, Health ... Released: April 05, 2018
    On December 7, 2017 the Roundtable on Population Health Improvement held a 1-day, public workshop in Oakland, California to address the use of tax policies to channel resources and shape economic incentives affecting population health. The workshop began with a “tax policy 101” overview.
  • Graduate Medical Education Outcomes and Metrics ... Released: March 27, 2018
    Graduate medical education (GME) is critical to the career development of individual physicians, to the functioning of many teaching institutions, and to the production of our physician workforce. The current lack of established GME outcome metrics limits our ability to assess the impact of individual graduates, the performance of GME programs and teaching institutions, and the collective contribution of GME graduates to the physician workforce.
  • Advancing Therapeutic Development for Pain and Opioid Use ... Released: March 23, 2018
    Chronic pain is one of the most prevalent, costly, and disabling health conditions in the United States. In parallel with increasing recognition of the need to treat chronic pain, the opioid epidemic has emerged as a growing public health emergency. In 2017, the National Institutes of Health began exploring public-private partnerships to develop solutions to the opioid crisis and cut in half the time it takes to develop non-addictive analgesics. To help inform this effort, the National Academies’ Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous Systems Disorders hosted a public workshop that brought together experts and stakeholders from academia, federal agencies, advocacy organizations, and companies developing therapeutics for pain and opioid use disorders.
  • Implementing and Evaluating Genomic Screening Programs ... Released: March 16, 2018
    Genomic applications are being integrated into a broad range of clinical and research activities at health care systems across the United States. The genomics-based screening programs are clinical screening programs that examine genes or variants in unselected populations in order to identify individuals who are at an increased risk for a particular health concern (e.g., diseases, adverse drug outcomes) and who might benefit from clinical interventions.
  • Community-Based Health Literacy Interventions: Proceedings ... Released: March 09, 2018
    The Roundtable on Health Literacy hosted a one-day public workshop that featured moderated panels, invited presentations, and discussions of community-based health literacy interventions. The areas of focus included the range of community-based health literacy interventions that currently exist, research related to community-based health literacy interventions, and best practices in community-based health literacy interventions.
  • Enabling Novel Treatments for Nervous System Disorders by ... Released: March 08, 2018
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) presents a special challenge to the development of therapeutics for many central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Far from acting simply as a physical barrier, the BBB is a complex dynamic system involving several cell types, passive and active transport mechanisms, and adaptive function to control the exchange of substances between the blood and the CNS. Few therapeutic agents readily traverse the BBB to reach the brain or spinal cord, including most small molecule drugs and the vast majority of large molecules such as proteins.