About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • An American Crisis: The Growing Absence of Black Men in ... Released: May 18, 2018
    Black men are increasingly underrepresented in medical schools and in the medical profession. Within this context, the Health and Medicine Division of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine and the W. Montague Cobb Institute jointly convened a 2-day workshop on November 20-21, 2017, in Washington, D.C.
  • Improving Health Research on Small Populations ... Released: May 04, 2018
    The increasing diversity of population of the United States presents many challenges to conducting health research that is representative and informative. Dispersion and accessibility issues can increase logistical costs; populations for which it is difficult to obtain adequate sample size are also likely to be expensive to study. Hence, even if it is technically feasible to study a small population, it may not be easy to obtain the funding to do so. In order to address the issues associated with improving health research of small populations, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened a workshop in January 2018. Participants considered ways of addressing the challenges of conducting epidemiological studies or intervention research with small population groups, including alternative study designs, innovative methodologies for data collection, and innovative statistical techniques for analysis.
  • Improving Health Professional Education and Practice ... Released: April 25, 2018
    The Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education hosted a 1.5-day public workshop to explore gaps within education and across the continuum of health professional education to practice. The discussions looked at current and future technologies that could bridge the identified gaps in order to optimize health and education system performance and access in high-, middle-, and low-income regions.
  • Graduate Medical Education Outcomes and Metrics ... Released: March 27, 2018
    Graduate medical education (GME) is critical to the career development of individual physicians, to the functioning of many teaching institutions, and to the production of our physician workforce. The current lack of established GME outcome metrics limits our ability to assess the impact of individual graduates, the performance of GME programs and teaching institutions, and the collective contribution of GME graduates to the physician workforce.
  • Aging and Disability: Beyond Stereotypes to Inclusion ... Released: March 13, 2018
    How do stereotypes affect the health and independence of aging adults and those with disabilities? How do they impact the industries that interact with these populations? And what are some opportunities to disrupt the narrative and change perceptions of what it means to be older or have a disability?
  • Transforming the Financing of Early Care and Education ... Released: February 22, 2018
    An ad hoc committee under the auspices of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine studied how to fund early care and education for children from birth to kindergarten entry that is accessible, affordable to families, and of high quality, including a well-qualified and adequately supported workforce consistent with the vision outlined in the report Transforming the Workforce for Children Birth Through Age 8.
  • Exploring a Business Case for High-Value Continuing ... Released: November 09, 2017
    Continuing education, continuing professional development, and high-value Continuing Professional Development (CPD) exist along a continuum. The Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education (Global Forum) hosted a workshop on April 6–7, 2017, to explore the value proposition for CPD. Forum members and workshop participants gathered in Washington, DC, to learn about innovative CPD programs around the world, to consider the perspectives of those who invest in CPD, and to discuss the businesses case for CPD.
  • The Drug Development Paradigm in Oncology: Proceedings ... Released: July 24, 2017
    Advances in cancer research have led to an improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the development of cancer and how the immune system responds to cancer. This influx of research has led to an increasing number and variety of cancer therapies in the drug development pipeline. Compared with standard chemotherapies, these new cancer therapies may demonstrate evidence of benefit at an earlier stage of development.
  • Cancer Care in Low-Resource Areas: Cancer Treatment ... Released: May 23, 2017
    Though cancer was once considered to be a problem primarily in wealthy nations, low- and middle-income countries now bear a majority share of the global cancer burden. Disparities in cancer outcomes also exist in high-income countries—communities within wealthier nations can experience worse cancer outcomes, especially if they have challenges in accessing cancer prevention and cancer care services.
  • Developing Affordable and Accessible Community-Based ... Released: May 17, 2017
    Accessible and affordable housing can enable community living, maximize independence, and promote health for vulnerable populations. However, the United States faces a shortage of affordable and accessible housing for vulnerable low-income older adults and individuals living with disabilities. This shortage is expected to grow over the coming years given the population shifts leading to greater numbers of older adults and of individuals living with disabilities.