About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Ensuring Safe Foods and Medical Products Through Stronger ... Released: April 04, 2012
    Whether it’s suspect scallions from Mexico or contaminated ingredients from China used in the blood thinner heparin, the FDA is intimately familiar with the daunting task of policing the safety of food and medical products faced by regulators abroad. The FDA is responsible for protecting American consumers from unsafe food, medicines, biologics, and medical products that originate from many different countries and are transported through complex supply chains. The IOM formed a committee to identify the core elements of food, medicine, medical product, and biologics regulatory systems in developing countries; to pin-point the main gaps in these systems; and to design a strategy to leverage the expertise of the FDA and other stakeholders to strengthen regulatory systems abroad.
  • Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World: A ... Released: March 22, 2010
    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for nearly 30 percent of deaths in low and middle income countries each year, yet most governments, global health institutions, and development agencies have largely overlooked it. The IOM recommends strategies to reduce the global burden of CVD.
  • Mitigating the Nutritional Impacts of the Global Food Price ... Released: December 01, 2009
    In 2007 and 2008, the world witnessed a dramatic increase in food prices. To better understand and find ways to address these issues, the Institute of Medicine held the workshop "Mitigating the Nutritional Impacts of the Global Food Price Crisis." This report summarizes the workshop discussions.
  • Use of Dietary Supplements by Military Personnel : Health and ... Released: June 09, 2008
    The use of dietary supplements has become increasingly popular among members of the military. While some supplements may provide benefits to health, others could carry adverse effects that might compromise the readiness and performance of service members. The U.S. Department of Defense, the Samueli Institute, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), with additional support from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), requested that the Institute of Medicine (IOM) review the use of dietary supplements by military personnel, recommending a framework to identify the need for management of dietary supplement use within the military, and developing an approach to report adverse health events.
  • Addressing Foodborne Threats to Health: Policies, Practices ... Released: September 15, 2006
    Foodborne agents have been estimated to cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000 hospitalizations, and 5,200 deaths in the United States each year. In order to examine issues critical to the protection of the nation’s food supply, the Institute of Medicine’s Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on October 25 and 26, 2005, in Washington, D.C. to explore existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of foodborne threats to health.
  • WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change : Health and ... Released: April 27, 2005
    The committee concluded that it was time for a change in the WIC food packages and the report provides details on the proposed new food packages, summarizes how the proposed packages differ from current packages, and discusses the rationale for the proposed packages.
  • Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to ... Released: July 28, 2004
    Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects assists policymakers in evaluating the appropriate scientific methods for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified products. In this report, the committee recommended that greater scrutiny should be given to foods containing new compounds or unusual amounts of naturally occurring substances, regardless of the method used to create them.
  • Prevention of Micronutrient Deficiencies: Tools for ... Released: January 01, 1998
    Micronutrient malnutrition affects approximately 2 billion people worldwide. The adverse effects of micronutrient deficiencies are profound and include premature death, poor health, blindness, growth stunting, mental retardation, learning disabilities, and low work capacity. This report provides a conceptual framework based on past experience that will allow funders to tailor programs to existing regional/country capabilities and to incorporate within these programs the capacity to address multiple strategies and multiple micronutrient deficiencies.
  • Vitamin C Fortification of Food Aid Commodities: Final Report ... Released: January 01, 1998
    In the present report the committee reviews and evaluates the final report of the pilot program, determines the cost-effectiveness of scaling up vitamin C fortification, makes recommendations concerning the advisability of increasing vitamin C fortification, and discusses alternative mechanisms for providing vitamin C to refugee populations at risk for vitamin C deficiency.