About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Examining the Impact of Real-World Evidence on Medical ... Released: February 12, 2018
    Randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs) have traditionally served as the gold standard for evidence generation in support of medical product development and evaluation. However, it is increasingly recognized that RCTs have inherent limitations, particularly with regard to generalizability, and time and monetary investment. Data from sources supplemental to RCTs, such as safety surveillance, observational studies, registries, claims, or patient-centered outcomes research, would be valuable to support biomedical research, including medical product development and evaluation.
  • Evaluation of the Department of Veterans Affairs Mental ... Released: January 31, 2018
    Approximately 4 million U.S. veterans supported the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan—Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn—and many have need for mental health care services. Under a Congressional mandate responding to concerns about the health care experience of these veterans, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) asked the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to assemble a committee of experts to assess veterans’ ability to access mental health services at the VA, as well as the quality of those services.
  • Exploring Partnership Governance in Global Health ... Released: January 25, 2018
    Governance in public-private partnerships (PPPs) refers to the structures, processes, and practices for decision-making and for ultimately accomplishing the goal of the partnership. Governance defines the power structure of a PPP by regulating who makes decisions and how and when the decisions are made, as well as how other stakeholders are represented in the process. The governance of a partnership impacts its efficiency and effectiveness in meeting its stated goal: strong governance can improve the performance of PPPs while weak governance can undermine it.
  • Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes : Health and ... Released: January 23, 2018
    Millions of Americans use e-cigarettes, even as rates of smoking combustible tobacco cigarettes continue to decline among youth and adults. In 2016 youth e-cigarette use was substantially higher than cigarette smoking or use of any other tobacco product. The Center for Tobacco Products of the Food and Drug Administration requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convene a committee of experts to conduct a review the available evidence of the health effects related to the use of e-cigarettes and identify future federally funded research needs.
  • Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to ... Released: January 19, 2018
    While there is consistency between many developed countries, including the U.S., Canada, and European Union countries, in methodological approaches used to derive an average nutrient requirement and upper intake level, which are the basis for setting nutrient requirements for a population, there remains considerable inconsistency across other national and international bodies, particularly in the developing world, in approaches used to set nutrient intake recommendations for specific population groups.
  • Getting to Zero Alcohol-Impaired Driving Fatalities: A ... Released: January 17, 2018
    Alcohol-impaired driving remains the deadliest and costliest danger on U.S. roads today. Every day in the United States, 29 people die in an alcohol-impaired driving crash—one death every 49 minutes. After decades of progress, alcohol-impaired driving fatality rates plateaued and have increased for the past two years—making it a persistent public health and safety problem.
  • Review of NASA's Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks ... Released: January 10, 2018
    The National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine, at the request of the National Aeronautics & Space Administration (NASA) and with guidance from the National Academies’ Standing Committee on Aerospace Medicine and the Medicine of Extreme Environments, established a committee to review NASA’s Evidence Reports on Human Health Risks. These evidence reports focus on human health risks for long-duration and exploration spaceflights.
  • The Challenge of Treating Obesity and Overweight ... Released: December 21, 2017
    The Roundtable on Obesity Solutions held a workshop in Washington, DC, titled “The Challenge of Treating Obesity and Overweight: A Workshop.” The workshop featured invited presentations and discussions that explored what is known about current obesity treatment approaches and the challenges involved in implementing them, including their effectiveness (and how “success” is defined); payment for services; training of the workforce that provides the services; and health equity issues involved in treatment.
  • Advancing Obesity Solutions Through Investments in the Built ... Released: December 14, 2017
    The built environment—the physical world made up of the homes, buildings, streets, and infrastructure within which we all live, work, and play—underwent changes during the 20th and 21st centuries. These changes contributed to a sharp decline in physical activity and affected access to healthy foods, which have added to the weight gain observed among Americans in recent decades.
  • Strategies to Limit Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption ... Released: December 13, 2017
    On June 21–22, 2017, the Food and Nutrition Board convened A Workshop on Strategies to Limit Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption in Young Children: Evaluation of Federal, State, and Local Policies and Programs, in Washington, DC.