About Publications

Publications from the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine provide objective and straightforward advice to decision makers and the public. This site includes Health and Medicine Division (HMD) publications released after 1998. A complete list of HMD’s publications from its establishment in 1970 to the present is available as a PDF.


  • Future Financial Economics of Health Professional Education ... Released: April 05, 2017
    The Government Accountability Office (GAO), World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank all agree that “an adequate, well-trained, and diverse health [care] workforce is essential for providing access to quality health [care] services.” However, according to the World Bank, efforts to scale up the supply of health workers are falling short. The resulting health workforce shortage affects people’s access to quality health care around the globe, and can result in untreated sickness, disability, and adverse economic consequences.
  • Exploring the Role of Accreditation in Enhancing Quality and ... Released: October 05, 2016
    The purpose of accreditation is to build a competent health workforce by ensuring the quality of training taking place within those institutions that have met certain criteria. Given the rapid changes in society, health, and health care, members of the Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education elected to take on the topic of accreditation and to explore the effect of societal shifts on new and evolving health professional learning opportunities to best ensure quality education is offered by institutions regardless of the program or delivery platform.
  • Envisioning the Future of Health Professional Education ... Released: September 14, 2015
    In 2009, 20 experts from around the globe gathered to create a roadmap for transforming health professional education for advancing health. Their ideas were captured in the Lancet Commission report on health professions education for the 21st century.
  • Empowering Women and Strengthening Health Systems and ... Released: February 09, 2015
    On September 9–11, 2014, the Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education and the Forum on Public–Private Partnerships for Global Health and Safety of the Institute of Medicine convened a workshop on empowering women and strengthening health systems and services through investing in nursing and midwifery enterprise. This report highlights examples and explores broad frameworks for existing and potential intersections of different sectors that could lead to better health and well-being of women around the world, and how lessons learned from these examples might be applied in the United States.
  • Building Health Workforce Capacity Through Community ... Released: October 03, 2014
    On May 1–2, 2014, members of the Institute of Medicine’s (IOM’s) Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education came together to substantively delve into issues affecting the scale-up and spread of health professional education in communities. A purpose of the workshop was to challenge the participants to think about community in new ways that could provide fertile ground for educating health professional students. This document summarizes the workshop.
  • Assessing Health Professional Education - Workshop ... Released: April 30, 2014
    In an era of evolving technology and changing health and health care environments, creative thinking about assessment methods and tools could be the driver for innovations that are affordable, easily integrated into education, and assess competencies at all levels. On October 9-10, 2013, the IOM Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education held a workshop to explore the challenges, opportunities, and innovations in assessment across the education-to-practice continuum. Issues such as assessment of learners and educators of IPE and team-based care were discussed.
  • Establishing Transdisciplinary Professionalism for Improving ... Released: October 07, 2013
    In a time of rapidly changing environments and evolving technologies, health professionals and those who train them are being challenged to work beyond their traditional comfort zones and often in teams. A new professionalism might be a mechanism for achieving improved outcomes by applying a “transdisciplinary professionalism” throughout health care and wellness that emphasizes cross-disciplinary responsibilities and accountabilities. The IOM held a workshop to discuss how a shared understanding can be integrated into education and practice to promote a transdisciplinary model of professionalism. Participants in the workshop also explored the barriers to transdisciplinary professionalism as well as the impact of an evolving professional context on health system users, learners, and others within the health system.
  • Interprofessional Education for Collaboration: Learning How ... Released: May 13, 2013
    Over the last 100 years, much of the landscape has changed with regards to the health professions and the settings in which these professionals work. Due to societal shifts and technological innovations, changes to the health professions are underway in many parts of the world that call for new models for how health professionals are educated. The IOM Global Forum on Innovation in Health Professional Education held two workshops which set the stage for defining and understanding interprofessional education and provided living histories of speakers from around the world who shared experiences working in and between Interprofessional education and Interprofessional or collaborative practice.