Speaker Biographies

Board on African Science Academy Development

Enriqueta Bond, Chair
Enriqueta Bond, PhD, recently retired as President of the Burroughs-Wellcome Fund, an independent private foundation whose mission is to advance the medical sciences by supporting research and other scientific and educational activities. Dr. Bond received her undergraduate degree in zoology and physiology from Wellesley College, her master's degree in biology and genetics from the University of Virginia, and her Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemical genetics from Georgetown University. Dr. Bond served as the Executive Officer for the Institute of Medicine from 1989 to 1994 before serving as president of the Burroughs-Wellcome Fund (July 1994-present). In addition to her current position, she has also served on the Board of Health Sciences Policy at the Institute of Medicine, the Board of the Society for the Advancement of Research on Women's Health, and the Board of the North Carolina Biotechnology Center, and as the Vice Chair of the Board of Scientific Counselors for the National Center for Infectious Diseases at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the chair of the Board of Regents of the National Library of Medicine.

Jo Ivey Boufford
Jo Ivey Boufford, MD, is President of The New York Academy of Medicine. Dr. Boufford is Professor of Public Service, Health Policy and Management at the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service and Clinical Professor of Pediatrics at New York University School of Medicine. She served as Dean of the Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service at New York University from June 1997 to November 2002. Prior to that, she served as Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary for Health in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from November 1993 to January 1997, and as Acting Assistant Secretary from January 1997 to May 1997. While at HHS, she served as the U.S. representative on the Executive Board of the World Health Organization (WHO) from 1994'1997. From May 1991 to September 1993, Dr. Boufford served as Director of the King's Fund College, London England. Dr. Boufford served as President of the New York City Health and Hospitals Corporation (HHC), the largest municipal hospital system in the United States, from December 1985 until October 1989. She was elected to membership in the Institute of Medicine in 1992. She received an Honorary Doctorate of Science degree from the State University of New York, Brooklyn, NY in May 1992. She received her B.A. (Psychology) magna cum laude from the University of Michigan, and her M.D., with distinction, from the University of Michigan Medical School. She is Board Certified in pediatrics.

George Bugliarello, ex officio
George Bugliarello, ScD, President Emeritus (having served as president from 1973 to 1994), University Professor and former chancellor (1994-2003) of Polytechnic University, is an engineer and educator with a broad background ranging from civil engineering to computer languages, biomedical engineering and science policy. A graduate of the University of Padua and of the University of Minnesota, he holds a Doctor of Science degree in engineering from MIT. He is now serving a four-year term as Foreign Secretary of the National Academy of Engineering, of which he has been a member since 1987. He has been honored by the Engineering News-Record as one of "Those Who Made Marks" in the construction industry in recognition of the creation of Metrotech, the nation's largest urban university-industry park. He has been president of The Sigma Xi ' the Scientific Research Society, and past president and honorary lifetime member of the National Association of Science, Technology and Society. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and has served as chairman of the National Medal of Technology Nomination Evaluation Committee, and of the National Science Foundation's Advisory Committee for Science Education. He is founder and co-editor of Technology In Society - An International Journal, Interim Editor-in-Chief of The Bridge, and has published and lectured extensively. Dr. Bugliarello's international experience includes consultancies abroad for UNESCO and OECD, including the review of the science policies of Greece, Italy, Portugal and Turkey; assignments as specialist for the U.S. Department of State in Venezuela and Central Africa; a NATO senior faculty fellowship at the Technical University of Berlin; membership on the U.S.-Egypt Joint Consultative Committee of The National Academies, foreign membership of the Venetian Institute of Sciences, Arts and Letters, membership on the Board of Advisors of the Universidad Polit'cnica de Madrid, and on the National Academy of Sciences Joint Mexico-U.S. Committee for the Review of Graduate Studies at the Universidad Nacional Aut'noma de M'xico, and being U.S. member of the Science for Peace Steering Group of NATO, and of NATO's Science for Stability Steering Group.

Michael T. Clegg, ex officio
Michael T. Clegg, PhD, received his BS and PhD degrees in agricultural genetics and genetics respectively at the University of California, Davis. In 1972 he joined the faculty of Brown University moving from there to the University of Georgia in 1976. In 1984, he served as Professor of Genetics at the University of California, Riverside and served as Dean of the College of Natural and Agricultural Sciences from 1994 to 2000. He is founding Director of the Genomics Institute at the University of California, Riverside. In 2004, Dr. Clegg became the Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, Department of Ecology and Evolution at the University of California, Irvine. Mike's research specialty is population genetics and molecular evolution. His early work in population genetics focused on the dynamical behavior of linked systems of genes in plant and Drosophila populations. During this period, he also contributed to the theoretical study of multilocus systems employing computer simulations together with the analysis of mathematical models. Later he helped pioneer the comparative analysis of chloroplast DNA variation as a tool for the reconstruction of plant phylogenies. His current work is concerned with the comparative genomics of plant gene families, the molecular evolution of genes in the flavenoid biosynthetic pathway, the use of coalescent models to study crop plant domestication and the application of molecular markers to avocado improvement. Mike was elected to membership in the US National Academy of Sciences in 1990 and he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1992. He was elected Foreign Secretary of the US National Academy of Sciences in 2002. He has also served as President of the American Genetic Association (1987), President of the International Society for Molecular Biology & Evolution (2002) and Chair of the Section on Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2003).

Phillip A. Griffiths
Phillip A. Griffiths, Ph.D., is Professor of Mathematics and served as Director of the Institute for Advanced Study from 1991 to 2003. Prior to joining the Institute for Advanced Study, he was Provost and James B. Duke Professor of Mathematics at Duke University for eight years. From 1972-83 he was a Professor of Mathematics at Harvard University. He has also taught at Princeton University and the University of California, Berkeley. He was a Member in the School of Mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study from 1968-70. Still an active researcher in mathematics, he also teaches mathematics graduate courses at Princeton University and supervises Princeton graduate students. Dr. Griffiths is Secretary of the International Mathematical Union. As Chairman of the Science Institutes Group, Dr. Griffiths leads the Millennium Science Initiative (MSI), whose primary goal is to strengthen the science and technology capacity of developing nations through programs of research and training planned and driven by local scientists. The MSI is a combined effort of the international scientific community, the World Bank, major foundations, and bilateral donors, who work together to integrate science and technology into country development strategies. Dr. Griffiths serves as a special advisor to the Mellon Foundation, and he was a Distinguished Presidential Fellow for International Affairs at The National Academies. A native of Raleigh, North Carolina, Dr. Griffiths received his Ph.D. from Princeton University. Among his professional associations, he is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, and the Council on Foreign Relations, and he is a Foreign Associate of the Third World Academy of Sciences and of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei. He was a member of the National Science Board from 1991-1996. A former member of the Board of Directors of Bankers Trust New York Corporation, he currently serves on the Boards of Directors of the Oppenheimer Funds and of GSI Lumonics. Dr. Griffiths is a member of the New York Yacht Club. Dr. Griffiths has three daughters and one son. His wife Marian is a neurologist.

Princeton Lyman
Princeton Lyman, PhD, is former U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria and to South Africa. He was Assistant Secretary of State for International Organizations in the Clinton administration. Princeton Lyman is currently Adjunct Senior Fellow for Africa Policy Studies at the Council on Foreign Relations. Previously, he was Director of the Global Interdependence Initiative at the Aspen Institute, a project coordinating the efforts of advocacy, business, and humanitarian groups to cope with the tensions created by contemporary globalization. He is author of the book Partner to History, which recounts his experience in South Africa during the transition from Apartheid to democracy. As Assistant Secretary, Dr. Lyman was responsible for the formation and implementation of U.S. policies with regard to the UN and UN agencies and other international organizations. On UN issues, he works in cooperation with the U.S. mission to the UN. From 1992 through 1995, Dr. Lyman served as U.S. Ambassador to South Africa during that country's transition from apartheid to democracy. He was Director of the State Department's Bureau for Refugee Programs from 1989 to 1992. Prior to that assignment he served as U.S. Ambassador to Nigeria for three years. In the early 1980s he served as a Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs. Dr. Lyman entered government service in 1961. His domestic assignments as a Foreign Service officer also have included USAID's Bureau of Program and Policy Coordination, USAID's Bureau of African Affairs, and the Institute for Scientific and Technical Cooperation. He also served overseas in Seoul, Korea, and as Director of the U.S.A.I.D. Mission to Ethiopia. He is a recipient of numerous Presidential and State Department performance awards. Dr. Lyman has a bachelor's degree from the University of California and a Ph.D. from Harvard University.

Narciso Matos
Narcio Matos, PhD, is Executive Director and Chief Executive Officer, Foundation for Community Development in Mozambique. Dr. Matos holds a PhD in Chemistry from the Eduardo Mondlane University (UEM) in Mozambique (1975), and Humboldt University in Germany (1985). Dr. Matos has worked at several academic and administrative levels at UEM. In the late 1980's, he was Dean of the Faculty of Science, and from 1990 to 1995 was Vice Chancellor of UEM (www.uem.org.mz). He served as member of the Mozambique's Parliament from 1986 to 1995, five of those years in the Parliament's Committee for International Relations. He served as Secretary General of the Association of African Universities (www.aau.org), headquartered in Ghana, during the years 1995-2000, when he was also member of the Advisory Group on Higher Education for the Secretary General of UNESCO. From 2000 to 2007, Matos was Program Director of the International Development Program at Carnegie Corporation of New York (www.carnegie.org), overseeing the foundation's work in sub-Sharan Africa with a focus on strengthening higher education in select African universities; enhancing women's opportunities in higher education; and, revitalizing public and university libraries. Dr. Matos has a vast and deep understanding of the issues, problems and promises central to development in Africa today, particularly in education.

Cheikh Mback'
Cheikh Mback', PhD, recently retired as Senior Advisor, Population Program, William and Flora Hewlett Foundation in Dakar, Senegal. Prior to this, Dr. Mbacke was responsible for The Rockefeller Foundation's regional programs and key Foundation-wide administrative offices, specifically information technology, fellowships and special projects, library services, office services and program administration. Dr. Mback', a population scientist by training, began his career with the Foundation as a senior scientist for its Population Sciences division in 1992. He became the Foundation's representative for Africa in 1999 and director of Africa Programs and representative for eastern and southern Africa in 2000. In this position, he was responsible for developing and implementing the Foundation's new strategy for improving the lives and livelihoods of the poor and excluded people in Africa. In 2003 Dr. Mback' was the recipient of the Rockefeller Foundation's Outstanding Achievement Award for his excellent leadership and management of the Nairobi Office. Dr. Mback' joined the Foundation after spending six years as a researcher and head of the training division of the Center for Applied Studies and Research on Population and Development at the Sahel Institute in Bamako, Mali. Prior to that, he was both researcher and statistician, working on projects such as the first Senegalese census and on a pilot survey in a nomadic area in Mauritania in preparation for the first Mauritanian census. Dr. Mback' has a bachelor's degree in statistics from the Institut National de la Statistique et des 'tudes 'conomiques in Paris, France, a master's degree in demography from the Institut de Formation et de Recherche D'mographique in Yaound', Cameroon, West Africa, and a doctoral degree in demography from the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. He has several publications and is a member of several professional associations. Dr. Mback' was raised in Nioro, a town in Senegal, West Africa, about 25 kilometers north of the Gambian border. He grew up learning English, French and his native tongue, Wolof.

David Satcher
David Satcher, MD, PhD is Director; National Center for Primary Care, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Dr. Satcher served as16th Surgeon General of the United States. Sworn in on February 13, 1998, he is only the second person in history to simultaneously hold the positions of Surgeon General and Assistant Secretary for Health. In these roles, he served as the Secretary's senior advisor on public health matters and as director of the Office of Public Health and Science. President Clinton had appointed him as Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Administrator of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, where he served from 1993 to 1998. Before joining the Administration, he was President of Meharry Medical College in Nashville, Tennessee, from 1982 to 1993. Dr. Satcher served as professor and Chairman of the Department of Community Medicine and Family Practice at Morehouse School of Medicine from 1979 to 1982. He is a former faculty member of the UCLA School of Medicine and Public Health and the King-Drew Medical Center in Los Angeles, where he developed and chaired the King-Drew Department of Family Medicine. From 1977 to 1979, he served as the Interim Dean of the Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School, during which time, he negotiated the agreement with UCLA School of Medicine and the Board of Regents that led to a medical education program at King-Drew. He also directed the King-Drew Sickle Cell Research Center for six years. Dr. Satcher is a former Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar and Macy Faculty Fellow. He is the recipient of 18 honorary degrees and numerous distinguished honors, including top awards from the American Medical Association, the American College of Physicians, the American Academy of Family Physicians, and Ebony magazine. In 1995, he received the Breslow Award in Public Health and in 1997 the New York Academy of Medicine Lifetime Achievement Award. Dr. Satcher graduated from Morehouse College in Atlanta in 1963 and was elected to Phi Beta Kappa. He received his M.D. and Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in 1970 with election to Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society. He did residency/fellowship training at Strong Memorial Hospital, University of Rochester, UCLA, and King-Drew. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Preventive Medicine, and the American College of Physicians.

Speciosa Naigaga K. Wandira
Speciosa Naigaga K. Wandira, MD, qualified as a medical doctor at Makerere University in Kampala and was subsequently appointed Uganda's Vice-President (VP) and Minister of Agriculture, Animal Industry and Fisheries in 1994 - the first woman in Africa to hold the VP post. As VP, her dynamic presence was evident: she was an endless source of new ideas for government in terms of strategic decision-making, among other things. In this same year, she was elected Member of the Constituent Assembly that drafted Uganda's 1995 Constitution. Prior to her Vice-Presidency, Dr. Wandira was appointed Deputy Minister for Industry from 1989 to 1991, then Minister for Gender and Community Development. Currently, Dr. Wandira is pursuing a PhD from Harvard University while, in her spare time, she dedicates her life to "advancing women, reducing poverty and the high level of illiteracy, and promoting social justice." She also finds time to advocate for affirmative action for women and other marginalised groups, including the elderly and disabled. Indeed her active campaigning for gender, peace and development issues contributed to the creation of the AWCPD, a committee jointly established by the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), to which Committee Dr. Wandira is the current Chairperson. The Committee aims at bringing women into the mainstream of efforts to prevent, manage and resolve conflicts, while ensuring their full and active participation in development initiatives at the highest decision-making level.

Speakers, Moderators and Facilitators

Dr. Bruce Alberts
Bruce Alberts, a respected biochemist with a strong commitment to the improvement of science and mathematics education, has returned to the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, after serving two six-year terms as the president of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). Beginning in March of 2008, Alberts began his service as the editor-in-chief of the journal Science. Alberts is noted as one of the original authors of The Molecular Biology of the Cell, a preeminent textbook in the field now in its fourth edition. For the period 2000 to 2009, he serves as the co-chair of the InterAcademy Council, an organization in Amsterdam governed by the presidents of 15 national academies of sciences and established to provide scientific advice to the world. Widely recognized for his work in the fields of biochemistry and molecular biology, Alberts has earned many honors and awards, including 16 honorary degrees. He currently serves on the advisory boards of more than 30 non-profit institutions. He is a Trustee of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, a Trustee of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation, a member of the Advisory Board of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the immediate past-president of the American Society of Cell Biology.

Laurence Cockcroft
Laurence Cockcroft is Senior Adviser to African Programs for The Gatsby Charitable Foundation. He is a development economist by profession who has been closely involved with issues relevant to the developing world, and particularly to Africa, since 1966. He has worked for the governments of Tanzania and Zambia, international organizations including the UN, FAO and World Bank, a large UK agribusiness company and for a private Foundation. Laurence published a book, Africa's Way: A Journey from the Past, in 1989 on the inter relationship of politics and development questions in Africa. He was a member of the international Board of TI from 1993-1999 and from 2002-2005 and has served on the Board of Transparency International (TI, UK) since 1994, becoming Chairman in 2000. From 2000 to 2002 he chaired the international group which developed the Business Principles for Countering Bribery and he pioneered the work of TI (UK) on Corruption in the Official Arms Trade.

Barney Cohen
Barney Cohen, Ph.D. is director of the National Academies' Committee on Population and assumed the role of study director in September 2003. Since 1992 he has worked at the National Academies on a wide variety of projects, including studies on urbanization, mortality, adolescent fertility and reproductive health, forced migration, aging, the demography of sub-Saharan Africa, HIV/AIDS, the demography of American Indians and Alaska Natives, and racial and ethnic differences in health in later life. Currently, he is working on developing learning partnerships with African Science Academies. He has an M.A. in economics from the University of Delaware and a Ph.D. in demography from the University of California, Berkeley.

Roseanne Diab
Roseanne Diab, Ph.D. is the Executive Officer for the Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf) since May 2008 and a professor at the School of Environmental Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal Durban (UKZN), South Africa. Her prime research interests are in atmospheric science, and include tropospheric ozone, air quality management in South Africa, and air quality and climate change interactions. Prof. Diab is an experienced and internationally recognized academic who has been elected a Fellow of UKZN, where she is one of the top researchers, and is B-rated by the NRF. She has published nearly 100 papers in leading peer-reviewed journals, as well as many other research outputs, and has supervised a large number of graduate students. She has headed a number of schools and departments at UKZN, the most recent appointment being Head of the School of the Environmental Sciences, comprising Geography, Soil Science, Agrometeorology and the Centre for Environment, Agriculture and Development (2005). Prof. Diab also has extensive experience in high-level interfaces with international scientists and administrators, having served on the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (CACGP) and the International Ozone Commission (IOC). Her unusual scholarly breadth is shown by her role as a past deputy chair of the Humanities Research Committee at UKZN. Within ASSAf, Prof. Diab is a Member of the Academy, on the Editorial Board of the South African Journal of Science, and a member of the Committee on Science for the Alleviation of Poverty. Her educational degrees include: B.Sc (1969) Natal, B.Sc. Hons (1973) Natal (First Class), M.Sc (1975) Natal, and Ph.D. (1983) Virginia.

David Dickson
David graduated in mathematics, and was news editor of Nature from 1993 to August 2001, and the journal's Washington correspondent from 1977 to 1982. He has also worked for The Times Higher Education Supplement (1973-1977), Science (1982-1989) and New Scientist (1989-1992), and is the author of Alternative Technology (1974) and The New Politics of Science (1984). David is the Director of SciDev.Net ' the Science and Development Network ' a not-for-profit organization dedicated to providing reliable and authoritative information about science and technology for the developing world.

Salif Diop
Salif Diop, Ph.D. is Senior Environmental Affairs Officer at UNEP's Division of Early Warning and Assessment (DEWA). He is a water specialist with extensive experience in various aspects of coastal oceanography, freshwater assessment, aquatic and marine conservation. S. Diop holds 2 doctorates from University Louis Pasteur/Strasbourg/France, a 3rd cycle Doctorate in 1978 and a State Doctorate in 1986. He had a one year sabbatical in RSMAS (Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences) of the University of Miami/USA ' Division of Biological and Living Resources in 1987. S. Diop has published over 120 scientific papers, reports and articles, including 3 published and 5 co-editor books and has been a member of numerous societies and scientific committees, commissions and working groups from 1987 to 2005. His experience with International Organizations spans from consultancies with USAID, UNESCO / Marine Sciences, UNESCO ' MAB, UNDP and IMO, IUCN and UNEP between 1982 and 1998 to Chief Technical Adviser of a UNDP/UNESCO regional project on Coastal Marine Systems in Africa.

Pat Goodwin
Pat Goodwin obtained a BSc (Physiology and Biochemistry) and a PhD (Microbial Biochemistry) from the University of Southampton. She gained experience of research in the fields of clinical biochemistry, molecular biology and microbial genetics before joining the Wellcome Trust in 1990. During her time at the Trust Pat has managed the Molecular and Cell Panel, the Infection and Immunity Panel and the Functional Genomics Development Panel. She is now Head of Department ' Pathogens, Immunology and Population Health ' which comprises two funding streams ' Immunology and Infectious Disease, and Populations and Public Health. Pat has also been an active member of the Society for General Microbiology, serving as an elected member of Council from 1994-1995 and as Scientific Meetings Officer from 1995-2000. She is a Fellow of the Institute of Biology and currently a member of the Biosciences Federation Council and a member of the Board of UK Biobank.

Carel Ijsselmuiden
Carel Ijsselmuiden is a medical doctor specialised in epidemiology, public health and health research ethics. His has over 20 years experience in rural health care, urban public health practice and in academia. He was the founding director of the School of Health Systems and Public Health at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, before joining COHRED, the Council on Health Research for Development, based in Geneva, in 2004 as its director. His major contribution in research ethics focused on critical examination of informed consent practices in Africa and in capacity building in health research ethics, through which the limitations of ethical review in optimising health research as an essential tool for development have become clear.

Jonathan Jansen
Honorary professor of education at the University of the Witwatersrand, Jonathan Jansen is, among others, a scholar-in-residence at the Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy for Girls at Henley-on- Klip. His most recent books are Knowledge in the Blood: How White Students Remember and Enact the Past (2009, in press) and Diversity High: Class, Colour, Character and Culture in a South African High School (2008, with Saloshna Vandeyar). In these and related works, he examines the ways in which leadership for social justice works against the grain of biography, in contexts where reparation and reconciliation remain important goals of social transition. He is a recent Fulbright scholar to Stanford University (2007-2008), former dean of education at the University of Pretoria (2001-2007) and honorary doctor of education at the University of Edinburgh. A former high school science teacher, he completed his postgraduate education in the US: a Master of Science at Cornell University and a PhD at Stanford University.

Andrea L. Johnson
Andrea Johnson, a program officer in Carnegie Corporation of New York's International Development Program, works on issues of gender equity in higher education and other elements of university strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa. Her previous areas of program work include transitions to democracy in Africa, development assistance reform and public and policymaker education about Africa. A former Peace Corps volunteer who spent two years in Riobamba, Ecuador, Johnson has research and professional experience in both the United States and in the developing world. She joined the Corporation in 1991 from the New York City Department of Transportation where she was a research assistant and operations analyst. She has also worked at the Mozambique Ministry of Justice and the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Johnson earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics from the College of William and Mary and a Master of International Affairs degree in economic and political development from Columbia University's School of International and Public Affairs. She is undertaking doctoral studies at New York University's Robert F. Wagner Graduate School of Public Service. Johnson has been active in community organizations and was a founding leader of Harlem Initiatives Together (now part of Upper Manhattan Together), which is affiliated with the national Industrial Areas Foundation network. She currently serves on the steering committee of the Africa Grantmakers' Affinity Group.

Patrick W. Kelley
Patrick W. Kelley, MD, DrPH, joined the Institute of Medicine of the US National Academies in July 2003 as the Director of the Board on Global Health. He has subsequently also been appointed the Director of the Board on African Science Academy Development. Dr. Kelley oversees a portfolio of expert consensus studies and convening activities on subjects as wide ranging as the evaluation of the US emergency plan for international AIDS relief (PEPFAR), methodological issues in the conduct of HIV prevention trials in developing countries, the evaluation of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in infants, the need for retention of the variola virus, an enumeration of US public and private sector interests in global health, and the prevention, treatment, and palliation of cancer in low and middle income countries. He also directs a unique capacity building effort, the African Science Academy Development Initiative, which over ten years aims to strengthen the capacity of eight African academies to advise African governments on scientific and health matters. Prior to coming to the National Academies Dr. Kelley served in the US Army for more than 23 years as a physician, residency director, epidemiologist, and program manager. Much of his work focused on disease control and disease control policy for the Department of Defense (DoD). He established for the entire DoD the Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity to develop the evidence-base so that evidence-based entrance standards could replace standards derived from expert opinion. In his last DoD position, Dr. Kelley founded and directed the DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS). This responsibility entailed managing surveillance and capacity-building partnerships with numerous elements of the federal government and with health ministries in over 45 developing countries. Dr. Kelley is an experienced communicator having lectured in English or Spanish in over 20 countries and having published over 55 scholarly papers, book chapters, and monographs. Dr. Kelley obtained his M.D. from the University of Virginia and his MPH and DrPH in epidemiology from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health.

Brenda Killen
Brenda Killen is the Head of Aid Effectiveness Division of the Development Cooperation Directorate (DCD)-Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The DAC is the principal body through which the OECD deals with issues related to co-operation with developing countries. The DAC Working Party on Aid Effectiveness was set up in May 2003 in the context of the international consensus reached at Monterrey on the actions needed to promote a global partnership for development and accelerate progress towards the Millennium Development Goals.

Edward K. Kirumira
Edward K. Kirumira, Ph.D. is dean of the faculty of social sciences at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda, and a member of the executive council of the Uganda National Academy of Sciences. He received his doctorate from the University of Copenhagen, in collaboration with Harvard University. His research efforts have focused on population and reproductive health issues and the HIV/AIDS crisis in sub-Saharan Africa. He and several other representatives from science academies participating in the African Science Academy Development Initiative (ASADI) were at the U.S. National Academies in Washington, D.C., the week before the Nairobi conference, learning more about ways to organize scientific forums.

Jan Lindsten
Jan Lindsten (b. 1935) obtained his B. Sc. in 1958, Ph.D. in 1963 and M.D. in 1969. Since 1970 he has served as professor of Medical Genetics at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, was Dean of the Medical Faculty between 1996 and 1998, and Professor emeritus of this institute since 2000. Lindsten has served in various capacities at the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm: head of the Department of Clinical Genetics between 1970 and 1990, chief medical officer between 1987 and 1990, and chief executive officer between 1990 and 1994. In 1994-1996 he was chief executive officer at the National University Hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. Lindsten was secretary general of the Nobel Assembly and the Medical Nobel Committee as well as member of the board of the Nobel Foundation between 1979 and 1990. He is a member of the Swedish Royal Academy of Sciences and honorary member of the Finnish Medical Association.

Mary Manning
Mary Manning is the Executive Director of The Academy of Medical Sciences in London. Incorporated in 1998, The Academy promotes advances in medical science and campaigns to ensure these are translated into healthcare benefits for society. The Academy's Fellows are the United Kingdom's leading medical scientists from hospitals, academia, industry and the public service.

David A. Mbah
David A. Mbah, Ph.D. is Executive Secretary of the Cameroon Academy of Sciences and Knight of the Cameroon Order of Valour. He attended the Basel Mission Primary Schools of Ashong, Diche and Batibo from where he was admitted into the Cameroon Protestant College, Bali, on a Bamenda-Widekum council scholarship. He graduated from CPC in 1962 with the West African School Certificate. For Higher education, he attended Cuttington College (1964-67), Gbarnga, Liberia; The University of Florida (1973-75), Gainesville, Fla., and The Pennsylvania State University (1976-80), University Park, Pa, graduating with Bachelor of Science (cum laude) in biology (independent study project in genetics), Master of Science in animal science (breeding and genetics) and Doctor of Philosophy (genetics), respectively, with a minor in statistics. These studies were possible thanks to a USAID scholarship for undergraduate work at Cuttington and AFGRAD (African Fellowship Program for Graduate Studies) awards at The University of Florida and The Pennsylvania State University. Upon completion of graduate studies, he joined the Institute of Animal and Veterinary Research of Cameroon. He was Head of the Beef and Dairy Research Programs of the Institute. Major research interests include animal breeding and genetics, animal genetic resources, production systems and management, biological diversity, biotechnology and bio-safety. He is Chief Research Officer (Genetics). He is author/co-author of at least 96 publications distributed among journal articles, book articles, conference papers, abstracts, etc. He has supervised/co-supervised 5 theses (DVM, MS, PhD). He was Director of the Regional Animal and Veterinary Research Centre, Wakwa (1981 ' 1993)(The Centre's Veterinary Laboratory was elevated to 'one of the sixteen laboratories of excellence of the Francophonie'), Director of Valorisation and Development Support at the Ministry of Scientific and Technical Research (1993 '1998), Technical Adviser to the Minister of Scientific and Technical Research (1998 ' 2005). He has served on several boards and councils. He has also served as resource person, expert or consultant on many occasions for UNEP, UN-ECA, World Bank, FAO and UNDP among others.

Jeremy McNeil
Jeremy N. McNeil is the Helen Battle Professor in the Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada since 1999. He has received numerous awards as one of Canada's foremost ecological entomologists and he is internationally renowned as an outstanding behavioural and chemical ecologist. He has served on multiple committees and continues to chair the Royal Society of Canada Expert Panel Committee; and he is on the Editorial Advisory Board for the journal Chemoecology and is Associate Editor for the Journal of Chemical Ecology. Professor McNeil is also very involved in the public awareness of science speaking to school children and other members of the general public, in different countries around the world for more than 20 years.

Carol Medlin
Carol Medlin, PhD, MPA is Senior Program Officer at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Assistant Professor of Anthropology, History and Social Medicine (DAHSM) and Global Health Sciences (GHS), and Associate Director of Policy and Evaluation at the Women's Global Health Imperative (WGHI), at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF). Dr. Medlin's recent work has focused on the design, evaluation, and scale up of innovative public health interventions in developing country settings, with an emphasis on HIV/AIDS and malaria. She conducts research on the behavioral and treatment practices for malaria in Vanuatu on a grant funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Other important research interests include the use of economic tools and incentives to promote public health prevention practices; the importance of social capital formation on health promotion; and community-based delivery strategies for public health. She has served as a consultant to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria (GFATM); UNAIDS; and UNDP. She is a member of the "What Works?" Working Group at the Center for Global Development that co-authored the publication Millions Saved: Proven Successes in Global Health, and a member of the International Health Policy Reform Network sponsored by the Bertelsmann Foundation. In 2002, she co-authored Achieving Impact: Roll Back Malaria in the Next Phase; the Final Evaluation Report of the External Evaluation of the international malaria control partnership, Roll Back Malaria (RBM).

H.E. Dr. Ham-Mukasa Mulira
Dr. Ham-Mukasa Mulira was appointed in 2006 as the Minister of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Government of the Republic of Uganda. Prior to this appointment, he was the Executive Director of Uganda Computer Services (UCS), in the Government of Uganda's Information Technology (IT) Department, which is being transformed into the National IT Authority -- Uganda (NITA-U), a World Bank funded project under the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development. NITA-U shall be responsible for the monitoring, coordination and support of IT initiatives in Uganda. Dr. Ham-Mukasa Mulira holds a B.S. in Statistics from Makerere University, an M.S. in Statistics & Operations Research/Computing from the Loughborough University of Technology in the UK, and a PhD in Statistical Computing, University of London (Imperial College/the London School of Economics), UK.

Patrick Amuriat Oboi
Hon. Patrick Amuriat Oboi (Kumi County - Kumi District) is with the Forum for Democratic Change political party in Ugnada. A civil engineer by profession he obtained a BSC in engineering and a diploma in education from Makerere University in Uganda. Hon. Amuriat worked as Technical Advisor to Care International from 1996-2001. Prior to that, he was the District Executive Engineer for Kumi District (1995-1996) and the Technical Manager for Godom Builders (1991-1994). His special interests are in Science innovation and technology; Human Rights Advocacy; and Conflict Resolution. His responsibilities are as Member of Parliament for the Committee on Physical Infrastructure and The Committee on Science and Technology.

Shem Arungu-Olende
Shem Arungu-Olende ARUNGU OLENDE is Secretary-General of the African Academy of Sciences & Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Quecosult Ltd. in Nairobi, Kenya. He has a background in electrical engineering. From 1968 to 1971, at the University of Nairobi, he conducted research on (electrical) power systems, their (mathematical) analysis, planning, design and operation. During the years 1969 and 1970, he was a Visiting Scholar at the Department of Economics, MIT, engaged in research on the application of mathematical programming techniques to large systems; he also did research at the LTV Aerospace Corporation on spacecraft guidance systems. From 1971 to 2000 he was an expert on energy at the United Nations, New York, where he provided advice on the development and use of energy resources (fossil fuels, renewable, and nuclear). He supervised the preparation of major studies in energy, including renewable sources; electricity; and the environment. He also assisted in the organization of major meetings and conferences on energy and the environment at the UN. Furthermore, he provided technical inputs into intergovernmental committees, commissions, and councils of the UN. He is also the Chairman and CEO of QUECONSULT Ltd, which provides professional consultancy services in Engineering, Energy and Sustainable Development, Environment, Economic Development, Science and Technology, and Software Development to the U.N., UNDP, the African Development Bank, UNESCO, and the World Bank.

Fon van Oosterhout
Fon (A.T.H.) van Oosterhout, PhD is a Senior Expert for the Research and Communication Division DCO/OC at the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs/ DGIS in The Hague, Netherlands. He is author of the book Moving Targets: Towards Monitoring Rural Decentralization that was published in 2002. In it he discusses major issues in decentralization, the relevant issues in monitoring and evaluation and setting up of a framework of monitoring directed at democratic decentralization

Martin Rees
Professor Martin Rees / Lord Rees of Ludlow OM Kt PRS is President of the Royal Society and also Master of Trinity College, and Professor of Cosmology and Astrophysics at the University of Cambridge. He is also Visiting Professor at Leicester University and Imperial College London. He was appointed Astronomer Royal in 1995, and was nominated to the House of Lords in 2005 as a cross-bench peer. He was appointed a member of the Order of Merit in 2007. Lord Rees studied at Cambridge University and then held post-doctoral positions at Cambridge, California and Princeton before becoming a Professor at Sussex University. In 1973, he became a fellow of King's College and Plumian Professor of Astronomy and Experimental Philosophy at Cambridge, a post he held for eighteen years. For ten years he was director of Cambridge's Institute of Astronomy. The President has worked and travelled extensively overseas. He has been a Visiting Professor at many universities including Harvard, Caltech, Berkeley, Kyoto and the Institute of Advanced Studies at Princeton where he is now a trustee. He was Regents Fellow of the Smithsonian Institute, Washington between 1984 and 1988 and is a foreign associate of the National Academy of Sciences, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the American Philosophical Society. He is a member of the Academia Europaea, and honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Pontifical Academy, and a number of other foreign academies. Lord Rees' current research deals with cosmology and astrophysics, especially gamma ray bursts, galactic nuclei, black hole formation and radiative processes (including gravitational waves) and also cosmic structure formation, especially the early generation of stars and galaxies that formed at the end of the cosmic dark ages' more than 12 billion years ago relatively shortly after the "Big Bang". He has authored or co-authored about five hundred research papers. He has lectured, broadcast and written widely on science and policy, and is the author of seven books for a general readership. His recent awards include the Royal Society's Michael Faraday Prize and lecture for science communication (2004), and the Royal Swedish Academy's Crafoord Prize (2005). Other notable awards include the Heinemann Prize (1984), the Balzan Prize (1989), the Bower Award of the Franklin Institute (1998), the Einstein Award from the World Cultural Council (2003) and the UNESCO Neils Bohr Medal (2005). Lord Rees was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1979 and served as a member of its Council between 1983-85 and 1993-95. He held a Royal Society Research Professorship between 1992 and 2004. He is married to Professor Caroline Humphrey, FBA.

Dan Schar
Dan Schar is the Africa Regional Coordinator for the Biosecurity Engagement Program at the U.S Department of State. A veterinarian by training, he currently serves as a policy fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Andrew Steer
Dr. Andrew Steer was appointed Director General (acting) for Policy and Research at Department for International Development (DFID) in April 2008. In this capacity he is responsible for overseeing Policy and Research Division, Trade Policy Division (joint with BERR), the Chief Economist and Chief Scientist, and Civil Society Unit. Andrew is an executive member of the Management Board and he chairs the Development Committee and Country Planning Review Committee. Andrew joined DFID in 2007 to become the Director of Policy and Research Division, which oversees five departments/groups charged with leading DFID's policy and analytical work on growth and investment; climate change and environment; human development; governance and social development; and research. Andrew arrived from the World Bank , after spending the past nine years in East Asia as the Bank's Director in Vietnam and then Indonesia. In Hanoi, Andrew oversaw the expansion of the Bank's engagement in Vietnam, becoming the largest IDA-only client. In Jakarta, Andrew was responsible for designing the Bank's program, and overseeing its implementation. Prior to that he held a number of senior positions with the World Bank, including head of Country Risk, Chief Author of the World Development Report on 'Development and the Environment' , Senior Advisor for Research, and Director for Environment and Social Policy . Andrew has three decades of experience working on development issues at the country level in Africa and Asia, and on global development issues. He has a PhD in Economics from the University of Pennsylvania, has written widely on development issues and has taught Economics at several universities. Andrew lives in Surrey with his wife and two children.

Helen Smits
Helen L. Smits, M.D., M.A.C.P., is president and chairman of HealthRight, Inc., in Meriden, Connecticut. Prior to joining HealthRight, Inc., she was deputy administrator for the Health Care Financing Administration; director of John Dempsey Hospital; professor of community medicine and health care at the University of Connecticut Health Center; and executive director of the John Dempsey Hospital Finance Corporation. Dr. Smits has served on many boards and committees of the Institute of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organizations, Association of American Medical Colleges, and American College of Physicians. She earned her undergraduate degree from Swarthmore College, and her M.A. and M.D. at Yale University.

Mustafa El Tayeb
Dr. Mustafa El Tayeb, Director of the Division for Science Policy & Sustainable Development at the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). He is a Founding Member of the Arab Academy of Sciences, a Corresponding Member of the Royal Academy of Overseas Science (Belgium), the Secretary of the UNESCO-EOLSS Joint Committee in Charge of the Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems and Editor-in-Chief of the UNESCO Science Report. Dr El Tayeb holds an Engineering Diploma from St. Petersburg (Leningrad) Mining Institute, a Master and a PhD in Geophysics from Bordeaux I University in France. He started his career in 1974 as a mining engineer/ geophysicist at the Geological Survey Department of the Sudan. His work covered the utilization of geophysics to civil engineering works, engineering geology and the exploration of mineral resources in the various regions of the country. Between 1976 and 1980 he worked as a researcher in the Red Sea. His research covered areas such as marine seismic reflection, airborne gravity and magnetic surveys of the central Red Sea, development and adaptation of the shallow water seismic techniques to deep-sea research. Dr. El Tayeb joined UNESCO in 1981 as a programme specialist in charge of the development scientific research and higher education in the Arab region. 1986, Dr. El Tayeb assumed the post of the Chief of Section responsible for Arab States and then became responsible for both Arab States and Africa Sections. During this period he supervised the development of a number of national S&T plans and projects. Between 1989 and 1996 he worked as the Chief of Development Analysis and Operations. His functions included assistance to UNESCO Member States in formulating science policies, strategies as well as the development of partnerships between universities and industries and the evaluation of higher education institutions and universities. In 1996 Dr. El Tayeb was appointed Director of the Division of Policy Analysis & Operations of UNESCO and given the task of building UNESCO's capacity in this area. Since then UNESCO reinstated the programme of science technology and innovation policies. The Division of Science Analysis & Policies launched an ambitious programme of assistance to member States in the evaluation of their national systems of innovation. Several International/regional conferences, workshops and symposia were organized to disseminate best practices in this area.

Jutta Schnitzer-Ungefug
Prof. Dr. Jutta Schnitzer-Ungefug is a neurobiologist and a Professor Extraordinaire at the Charit' in Berlin. She is secretary general of Leopoldina and manages the Academy Group, a joint project of the German Academy of Sciences, Leopoldina and the German Academy of Science and Engineering acatech.

Kala Vairavamoorthy
Kala Vairavamoorthy is Professor of Sustainable Urban Infrastructure Systems at the UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education and scientific director of the European Integrated Project SWITCH. He is a specialist in water-related infrastructure systems. A particular aspect of his background and expertise is the combination of a thorough understanding of water related urban infrastructure systems in low and middle income countries, coupled with strong skills in mathematical modelling, optimisation, and risk management. Main research areas are in the development and application of risk based decision support systems and optimisation tools for the design, operation and management of water-related infrastructure systems.

Mark Walport
Dr. Mark Walport, FMedSci, was appointed as Director of the Wellcome Trust in June 2003, following a varied career in the medical sciences. As Director, he heads one of the world's largest biomedical research charities, which spends some '400 million a year in pursuit of its mission to foster and promote research with the aim of improving human and animal health. Before joining the Trust, Mark Walport was Professor of Medicine and Head of the Division of Medicine at Imperial College London where he led a research team that focussed on the immunology and genetics of rheumatic diseases. He studied medicine at Clare College Cambridge and trained at the Middlesex Hospital Medical School. After qualifying in 1977, he held junior doctor posts at the Hammersmith, Guy's and Brompton hospitals and then returned to Cambridge to undertake a PhD at the Medical Research Council Mechanisms in Tumour Immunity Unit. From there he moved to the Royal Postgraduate Medical School at Hammersmith (RPMS) where he progressed from senior lecturer to the post of Professor of Medicine and Vice-Dean for Research. When the RPMS merged with Imperial College London in 1998, he became Head of the Division of Medicine and was responsible for bringing 600 staff together into the newly formed division. Mark Walport is a founder Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences and an Honorary Member of the American Association of Physicians. He previously served as a member of the Research and Development Advisory Board of SmithKline Beecham, as Registrar of the Academy of Medical Sciences and as a Governor of the Wellcome Trust. His research interests are the genetics of the complement system and inherited mechanisms of the susceptibility to autoimmune rheumatic disease. He was awarded the Roche Rheumatology Prize in 1991 and the Graham Bull Prize for Clinical Science (Royal College of Physicians) in 1996.

Jack T. Watters
Dr. Jack Watters is Pfizer's Vice President for International External Medical Affairs, responsible for relations with medical societies, academic institutions and government health bodies. Dr Watters also represents Pfizer on matters of corporate responsibility and human rights, especially relating to raising political will for the plight of people with HIV/AIDS around the world. Dr Watters serves on the boards of several distinguished non-governmental organizations and arts institutions in the US and UK. He joined Pfizer in 1994 and was instrumental in setting up the landmark Diflucan Partnership Program with the government of South Africa. The program is now active in over forty-five of the world's least developed countries. Dr Watters trained in medicine at the University of Edinburgh in his native Scotland.

Geoff Watts
Geoff Watts was born in Woking on 29 July 1945. He went to Emanuel School in London before gaining a BSc Degree at King's College. He then went on to the University of London to study for his PhD. He provided scientific research at St Mary's Hospital Medical School and the Institute of Ophthalmology. He then became the Science Editor of World Medicine and later the Deputy Editor. Geoff has been a freelance writer and involved in broadcasting for the past 20 years. Geoff's BBC credits include being an interviewer and presenter for Science Now. He was the sole presenter of Medicine Now throughout its 17-year lifespan. Geoff is also the writer and presenter of countless features and series on scientific and medical topics on Radio 3, Radio 4 and the World Service. In addition to the broadcasting work he does, Geoff undertakes written journalism, writing scrips and presenting to camera. He provides lectures and media training. He also keeps a foot in the academic world. In 1999 he was appointed to membership of the Government's Human Genetics Commission, and he was recently elected a Fellow of the Academy of Medical Sciences. Geoff is currently presenting Leading Edge for Radio 4.

African Policy Makers

Dr. Maurice Doube
Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation, Cameroon

Dr. Rexford Osei
Director of Science, Ministry of Education, Science and Sports, Ghana

Prof. Crispus Kiamba
Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology, Kenya

Dr. Noel Saliu
Chief Research and Innovations Officer, National Universities Commission, Nigeria

Dr. A'da Sylla
Technical Advisor, Ministry of Health and Prevention, Senegal

Hon. Gaolatlhe G. Oliphant
Member of Parliament and Chairperson of the Science and Technology Ministry Parliamentary Portfolio Committee, South Africa

Hon. Jennifer Namuyangu
Minister of State for Water, Uganda

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